May, 2016

Medical Brain Models – Learn About the Most Vital Part of Your Body

The human brain is the most complex piece of machinery on the planet. With more than 100 billion neurons processing and storing information, it has a greater processing capacity, in a smaller space, than even modern supercomputers, including the worlds fastest the IBM Roadrunner located at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

The brain is composed of four major parts, the cerebrum (cerebral cortex, or cortex), cerebellum, hypothalamus (pituitary gland), and brain stem. Spatially, these comprise the frontal lobe, parietal lobe (at the top rear of the head), temporal lobe (above and behind the ears), and occipital lobe (at the back of the head), with the brain stem below the occipital lobe.

Brain traumas or tumors are among the most complex problems a surgeon has to deal with. Many areas of the brain behind the hypothalamus, for example are difficult to access, even with modern surgical equipment like the gamma knife (used for tumor treatment) and endoscopes (lighted tubes with surgical equipment options) for clipping aneurysms.

A neurosurgeon introducing the idea of brain surgery to a nervous patient will be aided in his explanations by an anatomical model. These come as two part, four part, 8-part and deluxe models showing arteries and brain sections, as well as transparent models and models showing the entire nervous system.

While transparent models, showing the brain inside a human skull, or simple two part and four part models are sufficient for demonstrating minor problems like a skull fracture, most neurosurgeon offices benefit from more complex models which can be disassembled to show patients how parts of the brain fit together, and the difficulty represented by a tumor beneath or behind the occipital lobe.

An ideal example would be the classic four-part model, which consists of a medially divided brain, with each part hand painted, numbered and (and separately identified in a manual which patients can read). The right half breaks down into two parts: frontal and parietal lobes, and the brain stem with temporal and occipital lobes. The left half is a transverse cut showing all the parts of the brain.

Even more effective, in terms of patient education, would be any one of three models which are divided into eight or more parts. The first, an eight part, color-coded model, is a life size model in which the parts of the left side of the brain are colored to show the sensory and motor areas of the brain, whose functions might be slightly or temporarily altered by surgical intervention for a tumor or bleeding artery. Also shown are the 12 cranial nerve roots and several major arteries.

The deluxe eight part model is an amplification of the four part model, with both halves of the brain disassembling into their component architecture (frontal with parietal lobes, and brain stem with temporal and occipital lobes). In addition, this model is highly detailed and shows the brain stem more extensively.

The deluxe brain model, which breaks down into nine parts, depicts the arterial network of vessels inside the brain in intense detail, enabling vascular surgeons to identify to their patients the precise part of the brain where bleeding or other problems have arisen.

All models are made of durable plastic or a similar ingredient, painted in exquisite detail and with surfaces sealed against moisture and body oils to provide years of trouble free demonstration. Many also come mounted and labeled. Also available is a complete nervous system model showing how brain activity leads to limb and organ function.

Universal Medical Inc is a premier provider of brain models and nervous system models

Area 47 in the Ötztal Valley, Tyrol
human brain
Image by Harald Felgner
Brodmann area 47, or BA47, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. Curving from the lateral surface of the frontal lobe into the ventral (orbital) frontal cortex. It is below areas BA10 and BA45, and beside BA11.

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Secrets Powers of Phosphatide and why its called vitamens for the brain

Phosphatide is one of the largest groups of naturally occurring phospholipids, which are actually derivatives of glycerol phosphate containing nitrogenous base. Phosphatide helps to boost the memory power of a human brain. The chemical compounds present in Phosphatide diversely facilitate and boost memory power in human.

Even if you are not the intellectual types or have not got that many degrees to prove your knowledge there are ways in which you can work on making your memory better. For this you will have to considerably alter the way of your life, your eating habits, your general behavior and what you eat. By doing this, you can forego the inevitable loss of memory that comes with age and stay sharp using your brain to work at its best so that your memory is always fresh.

Important Facts you should Know:

It is possible to increase your memory considerably by consuming Phosphatide enriched memory pills. These smart substances come to our aid when it comes to increasing our memory levels to the highest. Sometimes people find many things changing in their lives, particularly their thinking processes once they touch forty. Over years, these changes could even become dementia. But it’s possible to delay the onset of this disease by making proper use of Phosphatides.

The medicines which contain Phosphatide are now approved by medical associations and they even help normal people to get better learning abilities. When you consume these kind of pills, you don’t need to even go to sleep for nearly four days and the best part is that there is absolutely no problem in focusing, neither is there any jittery feeling.

What you eat also affects your brain considerably. Naturally, it is important to make sure that we eat the right stuff to push up our memory levels. Phosphatides which can be found in various kinds of foods also speed up this process. What you eat has a profound affect in how you act and think so it is always a good idea to eat properly particularly during breakfast. When the brain is enriched with glucose then it works better and research has revealed that when you don’t have breakfast you perform poorly at school or even office.

Eating properly goes a long way in making your memory better. When you consume too many soft drinks and sugar based snacks, then memory loss becomes inevitable. These diseases become noticeable because there is lowered attention span and a marked disinterest in everything. How old you are is irrelevant when it comes to diseases that can spring up because of memory loss. Research has shown that when you’re feeling anxious, tyrosine levels go down. When you consume Phosphatide enriched drugs then you can considerably retard the loss of memory and diseases connected to it.

Thus, sensible eating is essential to boost memory power along with proper Phosphatide intake. Foods rich in antioxidants work in helping the memory function largely. Antioxidants fight cancer and play a positive role in certain heart diseases. It is advisable to include such foods in your daily diet, as they assist towards a better memory. Carrots and certain nuts are high sources of antioxidants. Soya bean contains maximum amount of Phosphatides.

Sustenance:

Acetylcholine is a vital messenger neuron and Phosphatides are very crucial when it comes to the assimilation of this neurotransmitter. Lowered attention spans and lessened remembering capability occur as an aftermath of lowered acetylcholine levels. Thus, if we want to remember things well, then we should also make sure that acetylcholine levels are maintained properly.

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IMG_8560A Claude Monet. 1840-1926. Paris.The Thames below Westminster. La Tamise à Westminster. vers 1871. Londres National Gallery.
human brain
Image by jean louis mazieres
Claude Monet. 1840-1926. Paris.The Thames below Westminster. La Tamise à Westminster. vers 1871. Londres National Gallery.

ART MODERNE : INNOVATION ET DIVERSITE

L’Art Moderne, annoncé bien avant le début du 20è siècle par les impressionnistes et les post-impressionnistes, a été un facteur tout à fait remarquable de renouvellement des formes, dans la peinture européenne. Sa caractéristique essentielle est certainement sa volonté d’invention, de changement qui s’exprime en peinture, dans l’emploi des couleurs, dans la recherche d’un nouveau dessin, dans la diversité des thèmes abordés. On peut dire que la civilisation européenne se distingue d’autres grandes civilisations par cette recherche constante, à l’échelle des siècles, de l’innovation. Cela n’a pas été le cas par exemple des civilisations islamiques ou chinoises dont les valeurs ont infiniment plus accordé la priorité à la pérennité et au maintien des traditions. Une fois encore on constate que l’art est un révélateur des valeurs qui animent les sociétés.

Les techniques utilisées par les peintres européens, au cours du 19è siècle, pour créer un art nouveau sont multiples, sauf omission, on peut les recenser ainsi :
"La Peinture Plate" par exemple avec Manet, plus tard Gauguin, Maurice Denis, les Nabis… Cette technique réduit ou supprime les volumes et la perspective et privilégie les lignes. Elle retourne à une esthétique qui était celle de la peinture Byzantine, Romane et Gothique. Avec d’autres thèmes évidemment.
La décomposition de la lumière et des couleurs en taches et en points. Les Impressionnistes. Les Pointillistes
Les couleurs arbitraires ou symboliques. L’artiste s’écarte des couleurs "réelles", celles perçues par l’oeil et le cerveau humain, et invente des couleurs apparemment arbitraires: Gauguin, les Fauves, le symbolisme, le surréalisme … C’est une technique que la peinture romane et gothique avaient mis en pratique très régulièrement.
La valorisation de l’Esquisse. L’esquisse a été pendant des siècles, seulement, ce que son nom indique : une Etude préparatoire à un tableau définitif. Au 19è l’esquisse devient un procédé définitif, terminal, d’expression artistique.
La décomposition de l’espace et des volumes du réel, en lignes et surfaces, plus ou moins synthétiques et significatives. (Cézanne).
La "multiplicité des points de vue" sur un objet ou un sujet. Technique qui cherche à rendre le réel comme si on le regardait, en même temps, depuis plusieurs points de l’espace. (Les Cubistes)

L’Art a toujours été, une manière de rêver le monde réel. Mais les nouvelles techniques de l’Art Moderne, s’éloignent toutes, de manière très intentionnelle,volontariste, de la représentation exacte du réel.
Les peintres tendent à créer un art dans lequel l’interprétation du réel l’emporte sur sa reproduction.
L’artiste "moderne" reproduit le réel mais aussi le rêve et l’invente. Ces tendances ont abouti à l’art non figuratif, autrement appelé l’art abstrait.
Ce renouvellement des formes en peinture est total. Il a apporté de nouvelles possibilités, très intéressantes, et très belles, d’expression artistique.

Il ne faut pas confondre Art Moderne et Art Contemporain. Ils ne recouvrent pas la même période. Ils n’ont pas les mêmes caractéristiques esthétiques ni les mêmes fondements idéologiques.
L’Art Moderne recouvre une période qui va depuis les pré-impressionnistes, vers 1850-60, jusqu’à la seconde guerre mondiale. C’est du moins la périodisation la plus couramment acceptée par les historiens de l’art.
D’autres historiens le font débuter un peu plus tardivement avec les post-impressionnistes et l’art abstrait, vers 1900. La définition la plus large est certainement la meilleure car les impressionnistes sont des artistes pleinement "modernes". Il en est de même du peintre romantique français Eugène Delacroix, ou de William Turner, fantastique novateur, annonciateur de l’impressionnisme et de l’art non figuratif, qui meurt en 1853. Tous deux ont fait de l’esquisse un moyen d’expression artistique privilégié.Les peintres de cette époque sont déjà profondément inspirés par la volonté d’innovation qui caractérise l’Art Moderne. La période de l’Art Moderne, extrêmement dynamique, est d’autre part, autre caractéristique majeure, riche de diversité. Elle s’inscrit tout à fait dans l’histoire de l’art européen. Elle ne renie pas le passé, mais elle est aussi remarquablement créatrice d’oeuvres multiples, inventive de formes tout à fait nouvelles d’expression esthétique.
.
L’Art Contemporain est postérieur à 1945. Certains fixent sa naissance dans les années 1950. On peut aussi prétendre, avec quelques raisons, que sa date de naissance, en tout cas idéologique et politique, est la création à New York du Moma par les Rockefeller (1929). Les dates sont bien sûr approximatives et certains peintres comme Picasso ou Miro appartiennent à l’esprit de l’Art Moderne alors qu’ils restent très créatifs après 1945.
En peinture et en sculpture, la diversité fait alors place à une profonde uniformité dissimulée derrière les apparences de l’innovation et même de la provocation. L’explosion d’originalité et de non conformisme qui caractérise l’Art Moderne devient un Système qui se fige dans l’idéologiquement et l’esthétiquement correct. Contrairement à ce qu’il prétend être l’Art Contemporain, officiel, celui qui est installé dans les collections permanentes des musées, est un art figé, académique, épuisé par un système et une obsession : le Nouveau. C’est l’Art de la Table Rase : Rien.

MODERN ART: INNOVATION AND DIVERSITY

Modern Art, announced well before the beginning of the 20th century by the Impressionists and the Post-Impressionists, was a factor quite remarkable for the renewal of forms in European painting. Its essential characteristic is certainly his invention will, his desire for change, expressed in painting, in the use of colors, in the search for a new design, in the diversity of topics. It can be said that European civilization differs from other great civilizations through the constant research, on the scale of centuries, of innovation. This was not the case for example of Islamic and Chinese civilizations whose values have infinitely more given priority to the sustainability and the maintenance of traditions. Once again we see that art is a developer of the values that drive the societies.

The techniques used by European painters during the 19th century to create a new art, are many. Except omission, and we can enumerate:
"The Flat Painting", for example with Manet, Gauguin, Maurice Denis, the Nabis … This technique reduces or removes volumes and perspective and focuses on lines. She returned to an aesthetic that was practiced by the Byzantine painting, Roman and Gothic.
The decomposition of light and color spots and dots. The Impressionists. the pointillist
Arbitrary and symbolic colors. The artist moves away of the colors "real", those perceived by the eye and the human brain, and invents arbitrary colors: Gauguin, the Fauves, symbolism, surrealism … It is a technique that painting Romanesque and Gothic had practiced regularly.
The valorization of the Sketch. The sketch was, for centuries, only what its name indicates: a preparatory study for a final table. In the 19th the sketch becomes a permanent process, terminal, artistic expression.
The decomposition of the space and the real volumes, lines and surfaces, more or less synthetic and significant. (Cezanne).
The "multiplicity of perspectives" on an object. Technique that seeks to make the real, as if you looked at him, at the same time, from several points of space. (The Cubist)

Art has always been a way to dream the real world. But the new techniques of modern art, are moving away all so very intentional, deliberate, of the exact representation of reality.
The painters tend to create an art in which the interpretation of reality trumps its reproduction.
The modern artist is hardly reproduces reality, it’s dream or invent. These trends have resulted in non-figurative art, also called abstract art.
This renewal forms in painting is total. He brought new possibilities of artistic expression.

It should not be confused Modern Art and Contemporary Art. They do not cover the same period. They do not have the same aesthetic characteristics nor the same ideological foundations.
Art Moderne covers a period that goes from pre-Impressionists, to 1850-1860, until the Second World War. This periodization is the most commonly accepted by art historians.
Other historians do start a little later, with the post-impressionist and abstract art, circa 1900. The broadest definition is certainly the best, because Impressionist artists are fully "modern" artists. It is the same of the French Romantic painter Eugene Delacroix and William Turner, innovator fantastic, annunciator of Impressionism and non-figurative art, who died in 1853. Both have made the sketch a way of privileged artistic expression
The painters of this period are already profoundly inspired by the desire for innovation that characterizes Modern art. The period of Modern Art, extremely dynamic, is the other, another major feature, rich in diversity. It fits perfectly in the history of European art. She does not deny the past, but it is also remarkably creative of multiple works, inventive new forms of aesthetic expression.

The Contemporary Art is subsequent to 1945. Some historians establish its birth in the 1950s.
One can also argue, with some reason, that his date of birth in any ideological and political cases, is the creation of the Moma in New York, by the Rockefeller (1929). The dates are of course approximate and certain painters like Picasso or Miro belong to the spirit of the Modern Art, while they remain very creative after 1945.
In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and the aesthetically correct.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation and even provocation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes a system that freezes in ideologically and aesthetically correct. Contrary to what it claims is the Contemporary Art, official, one installed in the permanent collections of museums, is a static art, academic, exhausted by a system and an obsession: the New. It is the Art of the Table Rase: Nothing.

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Subconscious Mind Power Techniques – 3 Effective Subconscious Mind Power Techniques

The brain is a complex entity. This also gives the reason for use to make full use of this complexity to maximize the potential of our brain – From using short term to long-term memory and from using the conscious mind to the subconscious mind. Our human brain contains all these special components but surprisingly, according the Einstein the man himself, we only use 10% of our brain most of the time. So what ever happens to the other 90%? To make full use of the human brain as a whole, we will definitely need to figure out for ourselves some of the mind exercises and subconscious mind power techniques that would help you to maximize the usage of the brain.

Many people have yet to realize that the subconscious mind plays an important role in determining the success or fall of a person. While there might be other factors, the ability to develop a strong and healthy subconscious mind will help the person to achieve greater things in life. Check out these 3 simple steps on how to use your subconscious mind power effectively:

#1 Meditation

Meditation is said to be a form of communication with your subconscious mind. Try to do this is in a peaceful and quiet environment so that you are able to relax and focus entirely on communicating with the subconscious mind. During this meditation, you are encouraged to repeat positive affirmations. You can also do this before you go to sleep so as to allow the subconscious mind to work through the positive affirmations while you have your night’s rest.

#2 Visualize

Visualization is a good way of enhancing your positive affirmations. By visualizing, you are allowing yourself to get into reality. Try to imagine each affirmation as though it is really happening to you. This will definitely increase the reliability of positive affirmations. Alternatively, you can try using your vision, and write them in places where you can see it. Over time, you conscious mind might get immune to the existence of these messages. However, you subconscious mind will continue to read this messages and will eventually tune your brain to work towards the positive affirmation. So place messages at your desk, fridge and even bedroom and make sure that these messages are noticeable.

#3 Use positive words

This is harder than what it might sound to you. These positive words are slightly different from positive affirmations. Using positive words would require you to discipline yourself to continue using positive words regardless of the situation that you are in. This is definitely a good practice as these positive words will allow the subconscious mind to act on the positive affirmations faster and hence it will shed more positive light on you. Words like “might” will definitely make you feel more motivated and positive, as compared to “will”.

Do try these techniques today and develop a healthy and happy mind that will help to boost your way up the ladder of success. At the same time, do look out for other techniques that will help you to develop your subconscious mind and boost your mind power!

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The human Brain
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Image by Mollenborg

Brain Injuries That Occur In Sports

Over the past decade, the scientific information on traumatic brain injury has increased considerably. A number of models, theories and hypotheses of traumatic brain injury have been elaborated.

Despite dramatic advances in this field of medicine, traumatic brain injury, including the mild 2 Slobounov and Sebastianelli traumatic brain injury (MTBI), commonly known as a concussion, is still one of the most puzzling neurological disorders and least understood injuries facing the sport medicine world today.

Definitions of concussion are almost always qualified by the statement that loss of consciousness can occur in the absence of any gross damage or injury visible by light microscopy to the brain.

According to a recent NIH Consensus Statement, mild traumatic brain injury is an evolving dynamic process that involves multiple interrelated components exerting primary and secondary effects at the level of individual nerve cells (neuron), the level of connected networks of such neurons (neural networks), and the level of human thoughts or cognition.

The need for multidisciplinary research on mild brain injury arises from recent evidence identifying long-lasting residual disabilities that are often overlooked using current research methods. The notion of transient and rapid symptoms resolution is misleading since symptoms resolution is not indicative of injury resolution.

There are no two traumatic brain injuries alike in mechanism, symptomology, or symptoms resolution. Most grading scales are based on loss of consciousness (LOC), and post-traumatic amnesia, both of which occur infrequently in MTBI. There is still no agreement upon diagnosis and there is no known treatment for this injury besides the passage of time. LOC for instance, occurs in only 8% of concussion cases.

Overall, recent research has shown the many shortcomings of current MTBI assessments rating scales, neuropsychological assessments and brain imaging techniques.

Humans are able to compensate for mild neuronal loss because of redundancies in the brain structures that allow reallocation of resources such that undamaged pathways and neurons are used to perform cognitive and motor tasks.

Three to four weeks after conception, one of the two cell layers of the gelatin-like human embryo, now about one-tenth of an inch long, starts to thicken and build up along the middle. As this flat neural plate grows, parallel ridges, similar to the creases in a paper airplane, rise across its surface.

Within a few days, the ridges fold in toward each other and fuse to form the hollow neural tube. The top of the tube thickens into three bulges that form the hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain. The first signs of the eyes and then the hemispheres of the brain appear later.

How does all this happen? Although many of the mechanisms of human brain development remain secrets, neuroscientists are beginning to uncover some of these complex steps through studies of the roundworm, fruit fly, frog, zebrafish, mouse, rat, chicken, cat and monkey.

Knowing how the brain is put together is essential for understanding its ability to reorganize in response to external influences or to injury. These studies also shed light on brain functions, such as learning and memory.

Brain diseases, such as schizophrenia and mental retardation, are thought to result from a failure to construct proper connections during development. Neuroscientists are beginning to discover some general principles to understand the processes of development, many of which overlap in time.

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Typical human brain
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Image by anandc1
Typical human brain

The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but has a more developed cerebral cortex than any other. Large animals such as whales and elephants have larger brains in absolute terms, but when measured using the encephalization quotient, which compensates for body size, the human brain is almost twice as large as the brain of the bottlenose dolphin, and three times as large as the brain of a chimpanzee. Much of the expansion comes from the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal lobes, which are associated with executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought. The portion of the cerebral cortex devoted to vision, the visual cortex, is also greatly enlarged in humans.

The human cerebral cortex is a thick layer of neural tissue that covers most of the brain. This layer is folded in a way that increases the amount of surface that can fit into the volume available. The pattern of folds is similar across individuals, although there are many small variations. The cortex is divided into four “lobes”, called the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe. (Some classification systems also include a limbic lobe and treat the insular cortex as a lobe.) Within each lobe are numerous cortical areas, each associated with a particular function, including vision, motor control, and language. The left and right sides of the cortex are broadly similar in shape, and most cortical areas are replicated on both sides. Some areas, though, show strong lateralization, particularly areas that are involved in language. In most people, the left hemisphere is “dominant” for language, with the right hemisphere playing only a minor role. There are other functions, such as spatiotemporal reasoning, for which the right hemisphere is usually dominant.

Despite being protected by the thick bones of the skull, suspended in cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the human brain is susceptible to damage and disease. The most common forms of physical damage are closed head injuries such as a blow to the head, a stroke, or poisoning by a variety of chemicals that can act as neurotoxins. Infection of the brain, though serious, is rare due to the biological barriers that protect it. The human brain is also susceptible to degenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. A number of psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia and depression, are thought to be associated with brain dysfunctions, although the nature of such brain anomalies is not well understood.

Scientifically, the techniques that are used to study the human brain differ in important ways from those that are used to study the brains of other mammals. On the one hand, invasive techniques such as inserting electrodes into the brain, or disabling parts of the brain in order to examine the effect on behavior, are used with non-human species, but for ethical reasons, are generally not performed with humans. On the other hand, humans are the only subjects who can respond to complex verbal instructions. Thus, it is often possible to use non-invasive techniques such as functional neuroimaging or EEG recording more productively with humans than with non-humans. Furthermore, some of the most important topics, such as language, can hardly be studied at all except in humans. In many cases, human and non-human studies form essential complements to each other. Individual brain cells (except where tissue samples are taken for biopsy for suspected brain tumors) can only be studied in non-humans; complex cognitive tasks can only be studied in humans. Combining the two sources of information to yield a complete functional understanding of the human brain is an ongoing challenge for neuroscience.
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Increase Brain Power With Brainwave Technology

The human mind is very crucial for effective body functioning. It controls all aspects of your body. Instructions to body cell operations originate from your mind and the failure of the mind to issue instructions to body cells results in undesirable outcomes. People who have brain dysfunctions or those whose brain power is low have been labeled names that are not amusing at all. It is very possible for an individual to change or improve the power of his or her mind towards personal development. If you can manage to increase brain power, you can be sure that you will smoothly take the road to success in life. This may involve engaging your mind in disciplines helpful in mind evolution.

Scientists have researched and found out that man underutilizes the brain, estimating that 33 percent of the human brain is utilized leaving out a whole 67 percent unutilized. They have further revealed that genius people use slightly more brain as compared to other normal people. Genius brain usage is slightly above 33 percent. This explains why geniuses are more innovative and creative compared to other people using only 33 percent of their brain.

Every person desires to increase brain power. Several ways exist to help you increase mind power, but experts advice that anyone seeking the utilization of a certain method to increase mind power should seek professional advice and guidance. This is so because some methods especially where drugs are involved can turn out to be harmful if not properly applied. One of the methods to increase brain power that require monitoring by professionals is antidepressant which involve chemicals that, if not well administered, may cause addiction. However safe the method might appear from the outside, thorough research is needed before one starts using the method of his or her choice.

Brainwave entrainment has been known for having no adverse after-effect and this has made the technique gain popularity among most people. Binaural beats have been widely used to increase brain power and the outcomes of this mind power technique have been quite desirable. There are numerous mind power techniques, but this technique has proved so perfect in its functionality as well as outcome. The method employs the use of certain beat frequencies in soothing and slipping the human mind into various states of mind. The mind states include alpha, beta and theta all of which respond to stimulus differently. For example, the alpha state of mind helps a person in maintaining consciousness as well as focus mostly associated with creativity and attention or concentration. Theta states are mostly associated with matters to do with the soul and spirit.

Brainwave technology has been specially designed for enhancing a relaxed as well as stress-free environment for people. To get the best results, consistency in use of brainwave entrainment method of increasing brain power is emphasized. People who employ the technique sparingly are unlikely to get the benefits they desire. If you really wish to increase brain power with reliability and safety, brainwave entrainment will serve you best.

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Image from page 149 of “True manhood : a manual for young men” (1888)
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Identifier: truemanhoodmanua00shep
Title: True manhood : a manual for young men
Year: 1888 (1880s)
Authors: Shepherd, E. R DeCosta, B. F. (Benjamin Franklin), 1831-1904. White cross: its origin and progress
Subjects: Hakujujikai Sex Education Masturbation Sex instruction Sexual health Masturbation
Publisher: Chicago : Sanitary Publishing Co.
Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

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Text Appearing Before Image:
nerves, one on each side, to thearms, limbs, stomach, liver, etc., supplying the nervetubing to every gland, muscle and bone plexus, inter-mingling with capillaries, becoming there exceedinglysmall and delicate. Each white thread is a tubule (little tube) filled withtransparent fluid, and through it nerve force is com-municated. The bundles of them are inclosed in amembrane and the whole is called a nerve. Distributed at intervals through the body areminute clusters of cells and plexus called ganglia.They too are little batteries and are united with oneanother and with the spine and brain by nerves. The brain with its system of nerves passing downthe spine and its branches therefrom, together with itschain of ganglia, is called the Cerebrospinal System of Nerves. Cerebro means brain, and spinal, referring to thebackbone. The cells of the brain develop electric10 tK4 TRUE MANHOOD. force on the same principle as man makes artificialelectricity. Creative force draws into each cell atoms

Text Appearing After Image:
Fig. XLII. Brain and Nervous System. TRUE MANHOOD. 155 having an opposite character—positive and nega-tive—the acids and alkalies of the blood. Phosphorusand oxygen couple together, or perhaps fats and sul-phur. Uniting they form a new article, salts, andliberate electric force in the process. The salts aredisposed of by absorption, and the electricity is gath-ered in the nerves, and as illustrated in Figs. XLI.and XLIL, distributed throughout the system. Human electricity is called nerve force. It is muchfiner, more highly organized than that made by man.It is subject to the same laws of attraction and repul-sion, and gives off light, sound, heat, in the same way,e. g. sparks of light are often emitted with a crack-ling sound, when woolen garments, worn for somehours next to the skin, are removed in a dark, coldroom; and also by the hair when combed in clear,crisp weather. We find the same succession of young, old and de-stroyed cells in the brain as in all other organs. AGerman

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Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

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Free Brain Games

The human brain is life a metal door. It stays shut most of the time and can catch rust if left unused long enough. The brain doesn’t use more than a percentage of it’s capacity as it is. If on top of that we stop using our brains as well, then the human body would truly become the temple of unused potential. Keeping the brain sharp is like keeping a knife sharp.

You need to always grind it against something hard and running to keep it sharp. So you would do well to exercise your brain every now and then. The problem is that there aren’t many avenues which can be used to sharpen the brain. This is where online gaming portals have come up with free brain games to help the brain sharp.

Free brain games are games like sudoku and simple board games that help you sharpen the mind and broaden your way of thinking. The thing about the human body is that a fresh mind manages to keep the body fresh without too much hassle. A healthy mind is always key to a healthy body and hence sharpening the mind is as important as sharpening the body. Sometimes free brain games can mean that you play a game of chess. That is more than enough to get your brain running. Even Chinese checkers can help stimulate your brain. Free brain games can be quite helpful.

Free brain games are available all over the internet and hence all you need is your fingers and your brain to operate them. The games keep on changing from time to time with more and more games coming in that can test your mind than your reflexes. The old ones are still there but the new ones seem to be still pretty popular. It is again a matter of choice. The advantage about more free brain games coming out is that you have an option to master one game and move onto the next without a second thought, there are plenty more where they came from.

While playing these games for long can help stimulate your brain but too much of it can really put you into a mess where free brain games can be referred to as brain dead games because too much of them kill your brains. You wouldn’t want to be called a brain dead person, would you? So choose carefully!

For the best free Puzzle Games and the most addicting Brain Games visit our website FreeBrainGame.com

Food for the Brain.
human brain
Image by Shahmeer Shahid
Found A Popcorn Which Was Shaped Like A Human Brain.

Cranial contents
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Herbal Brain Enhancement Remedies To Increase Memorizing Power In Adults

Human brain is stated to be the powerful organic machine. This organ is responsible for controlling all the thoughts, movements and sensations and it helps humans in reacting quickly to things. This organ stores a huge amount of data in the form of images, texts and concepts. This organ is responsible for regulation of complex functions and it helps in performance of many functions like breathing, blood flow and hormonal balance without consciousness of humans. Its functions can be improved with herbal brain enhancement remedies.

How to achieve strong memory?

Strong memory is something that relies on the health and vitality of this organ. Regardless of whether you are a student trying to memorize a number of concepts, working professional trying to remember the tasks to be performed within this entire week or even an aged person looking for ways to stay mentally sharp, there are safe remedies to increase memorizing power.

What are safe remedies?

As most of us know and even some of have experienced, Ayurveda is a safe alternative system of medicine that provides us with a wide range of herbs for a number of ailments in our body, without any side effects like those caused by other systems of medicines. This is why humans are recommended to rely on herbal brain enhancement remedies. Let us gather some details about such a remedy called as BrainOBrain capsules.

What is BrainOBrain capsule?

This is an excellent memory booster supplement that will help in improving brain power within a short period of time. It is manufactured understanding the fact that human brain needs lots of power and stamina for performing at its best. This is why the herbs that are known to improve the healthy functioning of brain are added as ingredients in these herbal brain enhancement remedies. This multi-ingredient remedy will bring down the effects of age and free radicals on the brain, thereby improving its functions to a great extent. The effective ingredients in these capsules will strengthen the brain structure and neurons by providing vitamins like E, C, B9, B12 and B6. Generally, factors like mental fatigue, stress, anger, fear and hopelessness are known to affect the functioning of brain. The effects of these things on the human brain will be reduced by the effective ingredients in these herbal brain enhancement remedies to improve brain functions.

These herbal capsules have multiple ingredients and each one of them will perform their own role in improving memory and brain functions. This is why these capsules are called as effective remedies to increase memorizing power:

All these ingredients make these remedies to increase memorizing power, the best.

Neural Connections In the Human Brain
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Image by Image Editor
Two-dimensional brain Researchers at Brown University have created a computer program to advance analysis of the neural connections in the human brain.

Credit: Radu Jianu/Brown University

[Reciprocal link back Neural Connections In the Human Brain]

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How Your Brain Creates Mind Power

Sometimes it is easy to overlook how truly amazing our human brains are. The truth is, your brain is awesome — and its capacity is nearly impossible to grasp. In terms of power and intricacy, even the least developed human brain leaves the greatest computer of our times in the dust. Your brain is capable of processing an estimated 30 billion bits of information each second.

Your Brain is High Density Real Estate. Wonder how your brain is able to create your mind power? Let’s start here: You have about 30 billion neurons — the nerve cells responsible for conducting information throughout your brain. And if you were to stretch those tiny neurons end to end, they would actually stretch about 6000 miles — the distance from the surface of the Earth to the moon and back. And all of this is packed into your 3 pound brain.

Plus think about this: Each of those neurons is actually a tiny self-contained computer with the capability of processing an estimated one million bits of information. This gets even more amazing when you consider that although each of your neurons can act independently and also communicate with other neurons. And here is yet another amazing fact — it is estimated that your brain contains up to 100,000 miles of neural fibers created as your neurons reach out to communicate with each other.

Now remember – we are just talking about the average human brain. When you consider a highly refined human brain like that created through consciously focused mental exercise – your “neural fiber mileage” could easily quadruple.

Why You Can “Think Fast.” Each of your neurons takes an estimated million times longer to send a signal to the next neuron that today’s super fast computers. Yet your brain’s ability to process information makes even the fastest computer look like a slug.

How can that be so? Computers basically make connections one at a time. But a single neuron, on the other hand, can simultaneously send a signal to hundreds of thousands of other neurons in less than 20 milliseconds – one tenth of the time it takes for you to blink.

How the Power of Mind Works. All of your beliefs, your habits, everything making up your mental reality, is contained in physical neural-pathways. Each time you think a thought, it is communicated among your neurons via tiny electro-chemical messages.

The first time you have an experience or learn something new, a new pathway is created. Then the next time you have that experience, your brain will search to see if your have experienced it before. If you have, it will follow the same pathway.

The more often you have that experience or think that thought, the most physically complex and durable the neural pathway holding that thought will become. This is how a thought or action becomes a habit – and a habit is best thought of as more of a cemented highway than a footpath.

You cannot rationally “think” these physical networks away. That’s why it is so hard to break a habit. Habits are wired into your brain as actual physical connections.

How to Change Your Brain. If you have some personal aspects you’d like to change (and who doesn’t), you’ll do well to start by recognizing the fact that you can’t just think or rationalize them away. Logic does NOT reach where you need to go.

You’re going to have to create something more powerful. Something that overrides what you wish to change. And you are going to have to create neural pathways that are stronger that the one you wish to change.

Two things create strong neural pathways: Repetition, and intense emotion.

The basic secret of using your mind power to change is this: (1) Stir up and allow yourself to truly “feel” intense emotion about what you wish to change, (2) select a new positive behavior or thought pattern, (3) associate your new pattern with even stronger positive emotion, (4) reward yourself with praise each time you replace the old pattern with the new one, and (5) make it a point to repeat this as often as possible.

Does this seem too simple? What you are doing is actually creating physical changes in your brain – rewiring the neural pathways that create the power of the

The Quantum Mind,” the confidence-building and numerous downloadable ebooks here.

Canadarm2 (NASA, International Space Station)
human brain
Image by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center
The International Space Station’s Canadarm2 moves toward the station’s new P5 truss section for a hand-off from space shuttle Discovery’s Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm. Canadarm2 is a robotic arm that assembled the space station. It is routinely used to move supplies, equipment and even astronauts. As well as supporting the station’s maintenance and upkeep, it is responsible for performing "cosmic catches," the capturing and docking of unpiloted spacecraft that carry everything from science payloads to necessities for the crew. Out of this technology, NeuroArm was created. NeuroArm is the world’s first robot capable of performing brain surgery. It is a highly precise robotic arm that works in conjunction with the advanced imaging capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. Surgeons need to be able to perform surgeries while a patient was inside an MRI machine, which meant designing a robot that was as dexterous as the human hand, but even more precise and tremor-free. Canadarm and neuroArm were developed by MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates.

Image credit: NASA

More about space station research:
www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html

View more photos like this in the "Space Station Research Affects Lives" Flickr photoset:
www.flickr.com/photos/nasamarshall/sets/72157634178107799/

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These official NASA photographs are being made available for publication by news organizations and/or for personal use printing by the subject(s) of the photographs. The photographs may not be used in materials, advertisements, products, or promotions that in any way suggest approval or endorsement by NASA. All Images used must be credited. For information on usage rights please visit: www.nasa.gov/audience/formedia/features/MP_Photo_Guidelin…

An animated tour around the human brain (commissioned for Brain Awareness Week)
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Four Health Tips to Enhancing Your Brain

Long thought to be the soul of the human psyche, the human brain weighs in at about 3 pounds or 1300-1400g. What we know about the brain expands almost daily as new science finds more and more nuances that control our perception of life around us. We know that it controls what keeps us alive: respiration, digestion, heartbeat and a number of other involuntary or automatic functions of the body. Without our brain constantly working in the background, we would not be able to live.

It also controls what we call -Our Higher Functions- or things we are consciously doing day-to-day – abstract thinking, reasoning, dreaming and thought. Considered superior to any other species, our brain is responsible for our culture, advancements and higher level thinking including reading, speech and extrapolation. Things like creativity and personality are associated with the brain. We make decisions, define colors and smells and that is just the tip of the iceberg. This very special organ perceives the world around us and our activity in it.

The human brain is strong and some may consider it invincible; however, many times as we age, we realize isn not going to stay that way forever. Like any other part of our body, the brain is subject to the ravages of time, and our lifestyles affect it to a greater or lesser degree. As we age, the brain becomes slower in its functioning and its ability to rejuvenate itself. But, through science, we have also discovered that this doesn not have to be the end of things. There are many ways to enhance and improve our brain power and forestall the slowing down that comes with aging. This article gives you four excellent tips to get your started in reversing the damages that time causes.

Tip #1: Healthy lifestyles are the key

Integral to our overall anatomy, the brain is probably the most important organ in our bodies because without it, we could not function. So, we need to treat it like the special organ that it is. For the person who drinks heavily, they are damaging their brain more than the person who is a modest drinker. We have long known that alcohol and other substances like drug use destroy brain cells. Most alcoholics will argue that since we only use 10% of our overall brainpower, we have plenty of spare brain cells to call on. This is more myth than reality. Drinking does nothing to activate the other 90% of our brain’s capacity, and this fallacy will cause alcoholism to destroy our organ faster than believed. As a result, if you think of that 10% we’re using as a lifetime organ, we should go to great lengths to preserve and protect it.

Tip #2: Eat well and your brain will thank you.

You know the saying: Garbage in; Garbage Out. This applies to healthy eating to keep the brain operating at peak efficiency. Consuming the correct sets of food definitely benefits the brain. Consider this: the brain is the most active part of the body. In order to keep the brain vibrant and alive, we must give it the best fuel available. The brain is always on even when we are sleeping, so having an abundance of good fuel will keep the brain fit and thriving. Good foods will be greatly appreciated by your brain, and in return it will deliver excellent computing and reasoning powers. Never underestimate the power of a balanced diet, exercise and adequate sleep when it comes to staying focused and alert.

Tip #3: Exercise Makes the Brain Grow Stronger

Taking the time to get proper exercise is an excellent way for the body and brain to operate at maximum effectiveness. Leading a well-balanced lifestyle goes a long way towards having a brain that is alive, fit and ready to tackle any problem that the world throws at it.

Tip #4: Relieving Stress is Essential

Exercise also releases stress which can cloud and slow the brains functioning and create a good mood and a sense of well being.

The brain is an organ that should be respected, cared for and cherished. We only have one, and it allows us to make choices, and live our lives to the fullest. A well-cared for brain will deliver healthy perceptions, and result in a more active and fulfilled existence.

Get Your Free Brain Food and Nutrition report and Increase IQ, download the full IQ Mind Brain Library at http://www.IQMindBrainLibrary.com

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Brains of a tree
human brain
Image by CameliaTWU
Compound fruit of Osage-orange, Horseapple, Bois d’Arc, Maclura pomifera (Moraceae) after a winter on the ground in the back yard.

"The fruit has a pleasant and mild odor, but is inedible for the most part. Although it is not strongly poisonous, eating it may cause vomiting. However, the seeds of the fruit are edible. The fruit is sometimes torn apart by squirrels to get at the seeds, but few other native animals make use of it as a food source. This is unusual, as most large fleshy fruit serves the function of seed dispersal by means of its consumption by large animals. One recent hypothesis is that the Osage-orange fruit was eaten by a giant ground sloth that became extinct shortly after the first human settlement of North America. Other extinct Pleistocene megafauna, such as the mammoth, mastodon and gomphothere, may have fed on the fruit and aided in seed dispersal. An equine species that went extinct at the same time also has been suggested as the plant’s original dispersal agent because modern horses and other livestock will sometimes eat the fruit." (Wikipedia)

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Excess Sugar Impacting Brain Health Of People

The medical experts explain that there have been people in across the globe that experience extreme fatigue & other health disorders & this mainly happens due to the fact that they have been making excess consumption of sugar which forms the pivotal reasons for such sufferings. It is said that making consumption of excess form of sugar leads for the initiation of a number of health problems which may create an impact on the levels of insulin in the human body & it may lead for the outcome of diabetes.

Sugar usually provides taste & flavor in the meals & the medical professionals explain that people must make such incorporation of less than 25 grams on daily purposes & the proportion must be even less than this, if you have been diagnosed with diabetes. According to the novel reports, the medical experts explain that consuming more of sugar in our daily diet could lead for a number of health problems adversely affecting the mental health & it could also lead for Alzheimer’s disease & other dementia issues. There have been increasing cases all across the globe wherein people have been noticed getting diagnosed with such form of issues & it becomes a strenuous task for executing control over such matters.

Not extreme, but there is certain proportion of sugar which must be provided to the human body which empowers the human brain & leads for its effective functioning. The human brain leads for the utilization of glucose which helps for its proper functioning & posture wherein the improper quantities lead for adverse impact on its brain health.

Brain required certain potential sources & certain other fuels i.e. ketones which are required for helping the synthesis of the healthy fats in the human body. The health professionals explain that making consumption of such proportions in excess quantities lead for improper stature of memory & also lead for the adverse development of the hippocampus that is an essential structure in the human brain. When a person is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, it leads for complete shrinking of this structure that is located in the human brain.

They further elaborate that the human brain must be provided with healthy meals which lead for its effective functioning & therein it helps for keeping away from the health issues that are experienced by the people during the advanced stage of their life.

Paul Zand is a Medical Student and a freelancer who is specialized in writing. He is associate with many Pharmacies for whom he writes articles based on generic drugs like Ovral G, Mifeprex, Cialis Jelly, Zenegra, Loette, and such.

B0009489 Nerve fibres in a healthy adult human brain, MRI
human brain
Image by wellcome images
Nerve fibres in a healthy adult human brain, MRI, Wellcome Images

Credit: Zeynep M. Saygin, McGovern Institute, MIT, Wellcome Images

Creation date
2013

Technique
Magnetic resonance imaging

Description of image content
Bird’s eye (axial) view of nerve fibres in a normal, healthy adult human brain. Brain cells communicate with each other through these nerve fibres, which have been visualised using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI MRI). Diffusion weighted imaging is a specialised type of MRI scan which measures water diffusion in many directions in order to reconstruct the orientation of the nerve fibres. Since these images are in 3D, colours have been used to represent the direction of the fibres: blue is for fibres travelling up/down, green for front/back, and red for left/right. These patterns of connectivity in the brain are being used to study brain development and developmental disorders such as dyslexia.

This is a biology video for grade 7-8th students about the human brain and its different parts which include fore brain, mid brain and the hind brain.
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