Introduction to parts of the brain control:
The brain is a part of the central nervous system of the human body. The central nervous system is highly developed and is the site of information processing in the nervous system. The central nervous system has two parts:
2. Spinal Cord
Let us describe the brain in detail. The human brain has various parts that are used to control various functions of our body. Let us describe each of them in detail:
Brain of an average adult is made up of about 1000 billion neurons and weighs about 1300 grams. It is protected in the brain box, cranium or skull. Brain is covered by three membranes called meninges. Space between membranes is filled by cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid serves as a shock absorbing medium and protects the brain against mechanical shocks. It maintains constant pressure in and around the brain. It also helps in the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the nerve tissue and the blood.
Parts of Brain And Their Control
(A) Fore brain: It includes cerebrum and olfactory lobes.
It is the most specialized and the largest part of brain. Its surface is highly folded to increase surface area. It is made up of two hemispheres called cerebral hemisphere. It is made of grey matter and highly convoluted in appearance. Different areas of cerebrum control different body parts and functions as follows:
a. Occipital lobes: Region for sight
b. Temporal Lobe: Region for hearing
c. Frontal lobe: Region for speech, facial muscular activities and mental activities
d. Parietal Lobe: Region for taste, smell, touch, temperature and consciousness.
Actually, there are some areas in each lobe which control thinking and memory and are called association areas. These association areas store information and experience. So, cerebrum controls all voluntary activities.
(ii) Olfactory lobes:
It is a pair of poorly developed club shaped, widely separated bodies which are visible from the ventral surface only. Olfactory lobes contain olfactory receptors which are orange of smell.
B. Mid – Brain: It controls reflex movements of the head, neck and trunk in response to visual and auditory stimuli. It connects the hind brain with fore brain and conveys impulses.
C. Hind Brain: It is a posterior, small part of the brain. It is differentiated into three parts:- pons, cerebellum and medulla oblongata.
It is a thick, white, rounded ridge dorsally covered by the cerebellum. It carries impulses from medulla oblongata to fore brain and from one lobe of cerebellum to other lobe.
It is the largest part of hind brain, present below the cerebrum and above the medulla oblongata behind the pons. It consists of two large lateral lobes called cerebral hemisphere.
a. It has to maintain body balance and posture.
b. It controls and coordinates muscular activity.
(iii) Medulla Oblongata:
It is a continuation of upper part of spinal cord and forms the lower part of brain stem. It relays motor and sensory impulses between other parts of brain and spinal cord. It controls involuntary activities as follows:
a. Regulates heart beat, breathing and blood vessel diameter.
b. Coordinates reflexes such as swallowing, vomiting, coughing, sneezing and hiccuping.
Both medulla oblangata and bones together form brain stem.
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Image by tolworthy
Michelangelo’s God (from the creation of Adam) in the Sistine Chapel. The painting shows the structure of the human brain. For my own views on God, see AnswersAnswers.com/God