Bioacoustics as a tool for conservation of the maned wolf and the coati

Hello folks, thank you for your interest in this work! We are EBAC. A research laboratory of Ethology and Bioacoustics from Brazil based at University of Sao Paulo We have a sound library of Neotropical animals called FOCA. A collection of mammals sound, the ARQSOMA. Please, contact us if you have interest in mammalian calls for research purpose or any interest in research collaboration In this presentation, we will talk about the utility of passive acoustic monitoring systems and the monitoring of free-living population of acoustic animals. We use two PMAS to gather and analyze long distance calls from free-living populations of carnivores, without the presence of the experimenter and in a continuous manner. At the end of field recordings, we moved the memory cards and unload the online ARBIMON software. It uses voice identification algorithms to locate particular sounds in the recording files. We created a model, tested and validated to run together all the recordings made in the field. When the online ARBIMON have completed the automatic detections it will provide a table of numbers of detections to be exported to Excel, where we made statistics. We used the manned-wolf and the coatis as test models. Both species produce loud calls, which travel long distances and facilitates inter-specific communication. It is interest to notice that the coati has a high level of sociality, while the manned-wolf is a solitary species. To find each other during the reproductive station manned-wolf male and female use a long distance call. The roar bark. Watch the wolf barking in this video. [Sound: manned-wolf’s roar bark] [Sound: manned-wolf’s roar bark] In this other video, you can hear the whistle of a group of coatis emitting it during locomotion as a cohesion call All these sharp noise is the whistle that almost all members of the big group including the puppies, emit while moving. That is another efficient strategy to keep contact inside the forest. The loud call is used mainly for traveling short trips across the forest or to the trees either for location or position of the group members. This call is important for individual and alpha female recognition. To identify relatives and recognition between mother and cub. Would those loud calls of mammals be useful to accuse the species occurrence in a natural area? As are the court chirp calls of insects, birds and anurans. And what would be the advantage of using sounds for it? Sound collection through PAMS is cheap and non-invasive, as we don’t need to capture the animal, and don’t interfere in its natural activities. As we do not need even to be present during the collection of calls. And the PAMS were developed to store an enormous amount of acoustic data allowing a continuous sampling. All we have to do is to install the water proof recorder and come back after one week or more to take data restart the battery and insert new memory cards. Sometimes we need to improve the security against brown-capuchin monkeys. We tried the PAMS in different zoos of Sao Paulo to collect data to store in the ARQSOMA for future monitoring purpose or attraction with playback and to test the automated detection capacity of ARBIMON and SONGSCOPE softwares. We also worked in the wild in an ecological park inside the city of Sao Paulo, where there are populations of coatis. We installed PAMS and camera traps in passage corridors used by selected groups and in the nests constructed in the trees for nidification. So, what we found so far is that, yes, long distance calls of both manned-wolf and coati are perfectly captured by PAMS as you can see here in these sonograms of the wolf Orpheu at left and some whistles vocalized by a female coati from PET [Ecological Park of Tiete] at right. Besides announcing the presence of a group or an isolated animal calls collected with PAMS could be used after improvement of recording quality to allow individual identification and accuse the presence of nonlinear effect. Normally related to high level of arousal. The loud call of the coati exhibits high individual variability, and the high frequencies are emitted from 7 kHz either with or without harmonic. The notes have a sharp duration of time. Also, we can get other kind of information by using the automated softwares of the PAMS. For example, we can see that Orpheu never barked before 10pm during the ten days of acoustic monitoring. After that, he starts to barking sparsely until 1am when his vocal activities intensify until 4am. From that time on, the barking progressively decreases until ceasing completely at 6am. Automatic recorders are tireless field assistants. Through them, we recorded the first time what happens inside the nests of coatis. Now, we can measure several questions about the behavior of sleeping in the nests built in the trees. In relation to the coatis, we were able to monitor nest activity based on the presence of coatis vocalization in the automated recordings taken and analyzed by the PAMS. One of the first discoveries we’ve made was proportion of days of movement in the area of tree nests. During 45% of the time of acoustic monitoring, coatis used nests for sleeping and visiting the area of the nests to shelter, food, or travel path. The 23 days of monitored visits split up into five cycles of consecutive overnight stays and the greatest period was six nights. For example, we can see that this nest monitored during a forty days here was visited on an average of three days per week. Totalizing eighteen days of visitation. In an alternated manner, one day they slept in the nest and rest, the following day, they didn’t, and so on. By paying attention to the amount of nights spent in that nest, during these eighteen days, we know that they never spent more than six days in the monitored nests. This supports one of our hypothesis that they use more than a resting nest per time. This indicates that the coati does not always sleep in the same tree nest and has more than one area of tree nests to rest and sleep. The take home message here is that mammal species can be studied through Bioacoustics for conservation purposes. Feel free to visit our laboratory and know a bit more of our work. Thank you! EBAC Ethology and Bioacoustics Research Laboratory, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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