Periodization and Programming for Strength Power Sports, with Mike Stone and Meg Stone |

I would like to thank the NSCA for
allowing me the opportunity to come and discuss this particular topic. We are
going to talk, if I can get this to work, a little bit about Periodization and
Programming for Strength Power Sports primarily. Now there is no way that we
could do this subject justice in less than about a week. We don’t have that much time today. So
we’re going to go fast. So hold on to your seats and
hopefully we can stir up some things. Now if you get into the literature or
start talking to your fellows, your colleagues you will find that there is a lot of
controversy and a lot of confusion dealing with peroidization and the
concept of periodization. So we’re going to talk talk a little bit about what periodization really
is. The first thing we need to do though is talk about the components of a
training process and I hope there’s some things in here that will stir your
interest and get you to think a little bit maybe differently than you had
before. One thing that I would argue, and this is
a two-week topic, and that is you’re never strong enough and there is no substitute
for being strong. We can make a good argument, I’m not
going to do it today, but we can make a real good argument that stronger
athletes are better athletes. The next thing that I would argue is
there is no substitute for genetics and that is a key component in talent. We
know, for example, that your genetic heritage relates to physiology. For example, because of person’s genetics
they may inherit, so to speak, more type 1 fibers. They’re going to be a better
long-distance running. They have higher max VO2. If you
inherit more type 2 fibers you got a better chance of becoming a sprinter.
But one thing a lot of people don’t think about is that your genetics also
relate to your window of adaptation because of your
heredity you inherit the ability to adapt to a training program and some
people’s boundaries or window of adaptation are larger than others. So you can put them on the same program
and some folks are just going to adapt to that training program better than others. So the bottom line here is if your head
coach recruits basically people that have a
genetic background that is not too good for that particular sport you can put
them on the best training program in the world and a few years later
you may get them a little bit stronger and a little bit faster but they’re still
going to be weaker and less fast than people that had genetics that were right
for that sport. Now we also have to realize that
training is a process and there’s a lot more to it than simply the sets and reps.
In other words the programming. We’re going to talk a little bit about
that. One of the things that you have to realize that you have to learn in detail
how to plan all of the aspects of the process. You have to understand the basic
training principle, which we’ll talk a little bit about later on. You have to be
creative and learn how to use long-term and think long-term rather than just
what’s going to happen tomorrow and learn how to vary the the various components of the training
program over long-term and the training process over a long-term. We also need to understand how to build
in recovery adaptation phases and we’ll talk a little bit about that. We also need to understand that what we
call well trained athletes are not always well trained. They go home for the
summer, they go home for Christmas break, they go home for Thanksgiving and they
don’t come back the same athlete. We have to understand that there are
distinct characteristics that we need to develop in training. Now there is a
performance goal. Along the way we have to do emphasize certain
characteristics of training like strength or strength endurance or
power endurance, strength endurance, regular endurance, whatever, and
we have to emphasize and de-emphasize certain aspects of that along the way in
order to optimize the development of that particular characteristic. And so we
have to understand how to manipulate the training process in order to do that. And
we have to understand the idea, the concept of long-term phase potentiation,
we’ll talk about in a few minutes. You have to be creative and if you’re
going to go into train advanced or elite athletes you’ve got to even be more creative. You
have to be very creative in a number of manners and one way is the exercise
selection. Do you understand how to use
potentiation contrast exercises or complexes? Do you understand the nature of clusters? Do you understand
exercise deletion and replacement? And etc, etc. Besides building in recovery
adaptation and the actual training process and training program, do you understand some of the other
components of the process? Like if the athlete eats a reasonable diet they’re probably going to adapt to the
training program better. Nutritional supplement use, how much sleep did they
get and there is good evidence now that athletes get a little bit more
sleep they may perform better. Water is a good ergogenic aid. It’s a
great ergogenic aid. Are they getting enough water? Possibly massage, possibly ice bath. A new
study has just come out from Australia suggesting that ice baths at the right time make a difference in terms of
performance and adaptation. What about vibration and so on down the line. Now one of the things that is extremely important if you’re going to be a good coach, and
I’ll make this argument, if you’re going to be a good coach you got to introduce a monitoring
program. If you don’t introduce a monitoring program you will not be a
good coach and I’ll be happy to argue that with anybody. If you can’t document
what happens to that athlete along the way, are they adapted to the training
program? Are they not adapting to the training program? That’s a very important component. It’s also insurance policies for
strength and conditioning coaches. Are they adapting to the program? It helps us with talent ID. It helps us
understand which programs might work better than others and so on down the line. So a good monitoring program is a key
part of the training process. Also part of the commitment and the realization on
the coaches part is when it’s necessary to make a maximum effort you’ve got to get the athlete to make a
maximum effort. Certainly in resistance training, in the weight room, making a
maximum effort is a necessary factor and if you don’t do that your performance won’t be as good. And so
certainly when a maximum effort is necessary can you get the athlete to do
that? And a lot of athletes, honestly, don’t understand how to make a
maximum effort. So on the part of the athlete a
maximum effort, when it’s necessary, is needed and here’s some evidence of
this. This is from a study by Eric Bannister
back in 1978 and he looked at the percent effort and he
measured this a number of different ways. He looked at RPE. He measured lactate and he
looked at a number of different activities, everything from swimming and
long distance running to resistance training, and basically what he found was
this, here we have performance versus effort. Just a little bit more effort makes a
big difference in terms of performance and adaptation in training. So not only is this important in terms
of what happens in the competition making an effort but it’s also important
in training to make a maximum effort when it’s called for because the
adaptation is going to be greater as a result. Now the next thing and this is one thing the
NCAA in terms of college coaches is your worst enemy. Okay, it makes you and force you into
things you really shouldn’t be doing and this is one of them, for example, in collegiate volleyball
university opens its doors for classes and about two weeks later is the first
volleyball game. Two or three weeks later. And so, the coach panics when he’s got to get
everybody in shape because they didn’t train during the summer. So that we put
them on a very intense training program. Is that the best thing for the athlete? Is that really in their best interests?
One of the things that we have pretty good data on now is this: if you start into a very intense
training program you can make very rapid gains, but the level to which you
rise, in other words your level of performance, comes up, the highest level,
comes up pretty quickly and then you begin to fall off. If you put more
variation in the training program the level of which you can rise, in terms of
performance, is a little bit higher and so on down the line. And we know that the
rate of gain is directly related to the average intensity of training. The final
performance level is inversely related to the rate of gain and the length of
time of maximum performance is inversely related to the rate of gain and there’s
good evidence for that. In fact it goes all the way back to Steinhouse in the 1960’s. Now, whoops, here are the type of programs that
you’ve got to be wary of. The first one is going to maximum or near maximum on a
regular basis. Everytime you walk into the weight room or out on the track you bang
away. High-intensities all the time. Although the
use of high volumes doesn’t really deal with intensity you use real high volumes
all the time you can get big increases endurance very quickly but you fall off
very quickly. The use of RM zones and training to
failure and if you use RM zones you will be trained to failure on a regular
basis. That gives you a relative maximum every time you go into the weight room.
You can get very rapid gains that way but if you continue on and there’s a paper coming out very shortly
that shows this, if you continue on the gains begin to fall off. And so, training
to failure, and we’re going to talk about this more in just a few minutes, is not a
good idea. It may give you rapid gains but it
doesn’t give you long-term or the best gains. We also have to realize that when you
train there are after effects to that training and there is one basic concept
that we really need to take a look at here: it’s called the fitness fatigue paradigm
and basically what we find is and this this orange here represents the training.
And so, we increase the training volume during the training program and fitness,
and that is all the underlying mechanisms that allow you to perform max VO2, you know, strength gains,
whatever, and the mechanisms that cause the rate of force
development, and so on, they improve, depending upon the nature of the training program.
So they increase but what we find is because of the training program and the
amount of work you do you accumulate fatigue and that fatigue we can see is a
negative after-effect. So we’ve got a positive after-effect here, in terms of a
gain and fitness, but we have the negative after-effect of accumulated fatigue. When you begin decreasing the volume of
training we find that, yeah, fitness will fall off, but fatigue
falls off at a faster rate and the difference between these two is called
preparedness, and that’s your potential to perform well, and because fatigue
falls off at a faster rate at somewhere out here we have an increase in
preparedness. And your ability to perform doesn’t guarantee a great performance,
but your ability to perform increases until fitness decays because of a
lack of training. Okay. This basic idea can be used in a
number of ways but one way that we have used it is in terms of taper and so this
is the concept that underlies the idea of a taper. And I’m not going to go
into the –all the ideas here, but basically, we know that if you do things
right and you taper correctly for a particular event that because of that
drop in volume we have an increase in the potential for a good performance. So the fitness fatigue paradigm gives
us an underlying concept as to why that taper works the way it does. Now here are the basic training
principles: overload, specificity, and variation. The overload deals with
applying a stimulus to the organism. If the organism actually does that, ok, it’s going to force them to adapt and
the stimulus is appropriate they’ll adapt in a positive manner. That
overload has some characteristics it has an intensity, whoops, I keep doing that, it has some intensity that might be
the magnitude of force or the explosiveness, rate of force development,
the power output, whatever. There is also some amount of
work that is accomplished. So the basic characteristics of overload
are intensity and the amount of work that you perform. Specificity deals with
metabolic and mechanical aspects and the closer we can make it to the performance the greater the transfer of training
effect. In other words, the greater the transferability. Variation is how we
manipulate the overload and the degree of specificity. Ok, arguably it is the most, and supposed
to be important right there, it is the most important factor in guiding or
directing us towards a specific goal. It is also extremely important in
fatigue management, ok, because fatigue is a killer. Ok. If you have too much fatigue
there you don’t adapt well. Too much fatigued you get injury -injured. So
we have to manage the fatigue appropriately to get the best adaptation,
reduce injuries, and so on. So we need to talk quite a bit about the
idea of variation here. The idea behind variation is quite
simple, it’s the removal of linearity, and if you
think about that then the idea periodization is the removal of linearity. And so with
variation we manipulate the variables in order to specific -to specifically cause
the wanted adaptations. In other words, specific adaptations. Specific training
results in specific adaptations and we also want to manage fatigue, as we see
here, and reduce the over stress, over training potential. Later in this talk we’re going to
discuss the need for training variation in terms of recovery adaptation. In
fact recovery adaptation, if you think about it, you apply stimulus. You go in
and you train. It’s during recovery that you adapt. So you don’t just get back to where you
were, that’s recovery. You want to get back further and actually make a positive
adaptation to the training stimulus. And then, we’re going to talk about long-term
phase potentiation. What you’re doing now for these three weeks or four weeks is
going to have an effect on the next three or four weeks. Now, in terms of
variation, will come back to this later as well, but there are different levels
of variation. We can go from the athletes lifetime, four year plans, in fact for
olympic athletes, olympics to olympics. You’ve got freshman to the senior year. You’ve
got a long-term or yearly or annual plans is typically a year. they could be
seasonal for team sports. For individuals sports or what we typically think
of his olympic sports they can have a defined climax and peak, and we’re
talking mostly about that. There can be meso cycles with my last months and
it’s a sub phase of the annual plan. Then we’ve got blocks or summated
microcycles, and that’s part of this, and then we’ve got weekly and daily
variation, and finally, if you train more than once per day, we don’t do the same thing every time
during the day. So there are lots of levels of variation that as a coach you
have to think about here. So then with this background begin to
talk about the idea of periodization and periodization and programming are not the
same thing. Periodiztion is the overall concept of training. It deals with subdividing the training
process into specific periods and fitness phases. Programming is how you
make this, whoops, how you make this occur. So programming is actually
the sets and reps that you put inside of the periodization process. Sometimes it’s
difficult to separate those two, but they are not exactly the same thing. This is a statement by Verkhoshansky
and, you know, some people said he -he claimed that periodization was dead. He
never said that. At least according to him he never said that. And in reading some of his literature I
can’t find where he said that. He simply made it evolve, and we’ll talk about some
of what he did in just a few minutes, but I want you to read the part in -in bold
here. If there is one self- limiting tendency among strength and
conditioning professionals, we focus on numerical models. In other words,
programming instead of periodization. We think about –we go to the details first
and miss the overall concept. So let’s talk a little bit about
periodization. It’s interesting, in the last few years, people have tried to change the
definition of periodization from what it was. In periodization, it’s important that
you understand that, it is cyclical in nature. That’s the very idea that you have
periods that repeat and so it is cyclical. And if you look at
some of the more modern, these are not them, if you look at some
of the more modern definitions they will simply call it a -a method of
organization of training, but it’s a way of manipulating the variables and
repeating that and repeating that in certain fitness phases so that we can
reach specific goals. Now I would argue that the goals of
periodization are 1 – fatigue management. Can we adjust the training stimulus so
that we can manage fatigue and optimize recovering and adaptation. So we want to maximize or optimized
specific training adaptations. We want to elevate the athletes
performance at the right time and those forces that have a true climax or we
want to provide a maintenance program. A maintenance process, really,
and those force with a specific season, team sports. And so, if we want to meet
these two goals we have to understand the idea of variation and we vary the amount
of work that you do, the intensity of that work, and the types
of exercises that you perform. Now, in terms of, and really we ought to put
classical periodization up there, ok, rather than traditional, but here’s the
basic ideas, if you go back and read Nadori who really was ahead of Matveyev,
but if you read Matveyev’s textbook from 19, the original was 1971.
It was translated into English in ’77, but if you read that this is basically
what it says. The athlete has to be prepared before engaging in highly
technical or intense training. Ok, the idea is basically we start out
in a more general manner and across time become more specific. Both in terms of metabolism and,
particularly, mechanics. We start out with higher volumes and we go to a lower
volume. Generally, volume intensely are inversely related. So the volume’s up, the
intensity tends to be down. So far that makes good sense. Now, it also states this in terms of biomotor
or fitness abilities like strength, power, endurance, and so on, they should be emphasized
developmentally or early in the process. That is right up front, and because
you’re trying to prepare for the higher intensity work that comes later. But here is one of the interesting
things. Now Matveyev got his original work, most of
it, from data from the 1950s and ’60s, and we’ll talk about that in
a few minutes. But, basically, what they did is they tried to raise all these
biomotor abilities simultaneously, and also technical abilities simultaneously with
that. Typically, now Matveyev started out in his original work with one peak, ok, one macrocycle. Later, towards the end
of it, he had three peaks in there and as we’ll see that may not fit the modern
competition schedule. So in traditional periodization if we look at a four-year
plan something is going to happen in that four-year plan. So in multi-year preparation which might
be several years we were thinking about high-level athletes, you know, and they
might be in the Olympics, and that could be, as I say, a
quadrennial type plan maybe up to two to three or four years. A macrocycle is
typically several months. It might be a whole year. It might involve the annual plan. Then we
have mesocycles, which are usually several weeks to a couple of months, it’s in between. We have the microcycle,
which is typically a week. And then we’ve got the the actual workout itself. So again, there are time frames in terms
of periodization. And both Nadori and Matveyev describe these time frames in a
great deal of detail. Now in terms of traditional periodization here’s the
basic annual plan here. Notice that the volume, –let’s, keep doing–
that the volume starts off rather high and here is the climax of the year down
here. So that would be your big meat or big competition. And so the volume starts
off rather high and it drops. The intensity starts off rather low and it
increases until, you know, it might drop a little bit right before the climax
down here when you go through a taper. And what Nadori and Matveyev did is they divided
this up into different fitness phases as they call them. One was the general preparation phase
and during that -that period of time they are trying to raise sports-specific
fitness. The term that you will often see see is called accumulation and during
this period back here and general preparation they are trying to get your
work capacity up for that particular sport. Also, we come to special preparation. The volume is still high but now we see
that the type of work that you’re doing becomes mechanically and metabolically
more specific. Still a relatively high volume here, but
mechanically, in particular, you’re dealing a little bit more with the basic mechanics of the sport itself.
And then we come through and they actually call this a transmutation where
you take what happens back here and now during this period of time right right
here you’re transmuting it, and it almost sound like alchemy. You’re making
the things that you build up here and transmuting them into a more specific,
mechanical performance and training belt. And then during the competition phase we
do come back to brief periods of preparation at times because if you go
for long periods of time your fitness is going to drop. So there
will be brief period of preparation and we’ll talk about that later. But,
basically, what we’re doing here is higher intensities, lower volumes, and
really getting ready for competitions that are occurring here and the major
competition which occurs at the end of this macrocycle. And then, at the end of
this we have active rest. And if any of you have ever competed at a reasonable
level or at a high level you know this active rest becomes important because as
you go through the training process, the annual plan, there are several things that happen. One
is you may pick up injuries. So you need some time here to get over
those injuries and the injuries may be noticeable. You know you have an injury. Or you may
pick up micro tears in the connective tissue. for example. And if you don’t
lower the volume of training and take some time down then what happens is
those micro tears turn into tendinitis and bursitis and so on. So we need some time to heal up. Another
thing that happens here, especially if there is a big competition at the end of
this, there’s a lot of emotion that goes into
this. So you need some emotional recovery here as well because there’s a letdown
after this. So active rest is quite important. Notice it says active rest. And
so, an active rest that doesn’t mean you’re taking time
completely off because if you do fitness is going to drop rather rapidly. So if we go through active rest, we train then at lower volumes and intensities. We
maintain some of our fitness. So when we come back to the heavier training we
haven’t lost so much fitness but we have allowed ourselves to recover both
physically and emotionally, as well. Now the other thing I want you to notice
are these hills and valleys here and this might represent two or three weeks
of increased volume training and then an unload period, increase volume training,
unload, and so on down the line. We’ll talk more about that later. The importance of that. So what we see
here are basically in the classical periodization, the fitness phases. What I also want you to do remember
though is this accumulation, transmutation, and then the idea of
realization where you take all of this and now you you transmit that, so to speak, or transmute that into the
realization of very specific training and the competition itself. We’ll come back to that later. Now there
are some problems with the traditional concept and here are some papers that
talk about some of these problems. One thing is there is evidence that you
can’t hold a true peak more than about three weeks. If that’s true and you’ve got a series
of competitions leading up to that that you have to do well in to make the big
competition then you better be careful when you peak. Ok. And certainly, in a team sport where
you’re supposed to win every game, you can’t afford to bring yourself to a
peak. So you have to be very careful in how you manipulate variables so that you
don’t peak at the wrong time. And again, with a series of competitions that
you’re supposed to do well in each one of those that’s very difficult. We’ll
talk about that in just a few minutes. All right, now, another problem is is the
simultaneous development of different physical and physiological
characteristics. That presents a problem. Although Nadori and Matveyev said, yeah,
that’s what athletes are doing when they described in their -their writings that’s what the athletes
were doing, both of them criticize that way back then. Ok, and what we find is when you use
mixed methods, okay, one thing if you think about this
we’re trying to develop things simultaneously. This is like what we
might call an add on coach. So, yeah, ok we’ve got to practice the
sport, we need to do some agility work and we’ve got to run some sprints, and
that creates a pretty big volume and, yeah, we need them to lift weights. So now
the volumes higher. Poor, poor fatigue management. Ok. And so,
these higher volumes are going to create a nightmare in terms of fatigue
management. The other important thing here is in -in
the weight room itself higher volumes create a nightmare. A real nightmare in terms of fatigue
management. One of the things, in fact I wanna bet based on this, Jeff McBride’s
lab and McCaulley, one of his graduate students, recently did a study back in,
it was 2009, in which they look at sets of 10 verses lower reps, but they
equalize the work. On a force plate. So they did sets of 10. They did set of, I
think, of six and set the three or four, and equalize the work. And what they
found was, even though the work was equalize, doing sets of 10 created a
greater metabolic disturbance than the other repetitions. In other words,
it’s going to take you longer to recover from this even though the amount of work was the
same. So that creates a problem there, and we’ll talk about that some more later. The next thing is is that mix training. You’re doing strength endurance work,
endurance work, strength work, power work, technical work, flexibility work, all the
same time. When you do that it almost always favors endurance over strength and
power. In other words, the gains endurance are going to be better. In fact the
strength and power gains, particularly power and speed will be muted compared
to what you could have gotten had you manage fatigue better. So this becomes a major problem. That’s
one of the major problems with what’s called daily undulating periodization.
It’s trying to do everything at the same time. Now another thing and we will talk about
this more later, training to failure on a regular basis.
The use of RM zones, and you do train to or near failure, if you use that method.
That is a poor method of training if you’re trying to gain strength and power
and speed and so on. We’ll talk a little bit
more about that later on. Now another important factor, since the
time that Nadori and Matveyev did their original
work, the competition scheme in most sports
has changed dramatically. We’ve got a lot more competitions now that we used to and I’m going to show you some evidence of
that in just a second. But just think if you’re a college strength coach, for
example in baseball, you’re supposed to play 56 games in 13 weeks. Ok, that’s a lot of games in 13 weeks.
Hard to train during that period of time, and so on. But because of this, if you
just think about, okay, we’re only going to be one or two or three times
per year that presents a problem if we have major competitions and you’re supposed
to perform well six or seven times per year. All right. So let’s think about summer
Olympic sports for example. This is from some work by
Issurin, looking at the world level elite athletes, and you see everything from road cycling down to
swimming and this is was from the 10-year period from ’80 to ’90 and the
10-year period from ’91 to 2000. And if you notice here, here are the number of
days that are available and what we see is that the number of competition days
have increased over that period of time. Now if you think about that, then
concomitantly, the number of day that you’re going to be able to train are going to
decrease as a result. That presents a problem. And one of the problems is if
you can’t train you won’t perform as well and I’m going to show you some data
to back that up in just a few minutes. This is one of the problems with the
NCAA, they keep telling us that we’re -they’re doing things for the
student-athletes and yet they keep expanding the season. When I was a little
boy, which was a long time ago, when I was about eight or nine years old, there
were nine college football games in a season. You might play 12 or 13 or even 14 now, if
you make bowl games and so on. The college baseball season was about 25 games. Now it’s 56. So there’s less training time and that
presents a real problem. So the results, if we take summer sports, okay, in the Olympics there’s a decrease
in performance and there has been an increase in injuries over years. This is from -from some work that Bill
Sands did at the Olympic Training Center. Track and field obviously is their summer
sport and this, you know, it was the same boat, yeah, there
have been some good individual performances, but if we really take a
good hard look, and I think Bill that it was pretty much all the events in track and
field have decreased, their, in other words, their performances have
decreased over time. This is the men’s and women’s 800 meters
and you can see, ok, the time has decreasing, decreasing,
then we get down here to around the ’70s and notice that it actually
has increased and this is the top eight over that period of time. Here’s the women’s and notice there’s a decrease,
decrease, big decrease, that’s Kralova who still holds the world
record, and then we see an increase and it kind of levels out. Ok, so there is evidence then that in
these summer sports and you might say well, drugs. Well I’m going to show you some evidence
that may not be drugs. It may be reduced training time. Ok, and that’s because when we look at
winter sports and -and don’t misunderstand this, they do take drugs
in winter sports just like they doing in summer sports, Ok, but the competition’s have changed
little over the last 30 to 50 years unlike what goes on in summer sports and
the level of performance has actually increased. And what we see here, this
again is from some of Bill Sands’ data, and we can see, for example, here’s women
speed skating and we see a different, in fact the ups and downs here, but we
see a markedly different and I think for many of the winter sports, particularly
cross-country skiing, if we take the top eight they have
gotten better rather than worse. Ao the the pattern is quite different
for winter sports compared to summer sports. All right, so there is a problem. Now one of the things that Matveyev
himself and other people noted was that the concept of
periodization was not static. Matveyev did not intended to be static. Nadori
did not intended to be static. They say in their writings it should be
an evolving concept and here are some of the evolving approaches. Verkhoshansky
developed the conjugated successive system back in the 1970’s.
Primarily, he started out with track and field but adapted that to other sports. We came up with phase potentiation in
the late ’70’s and ’80’s. Block periodization, which was really an offshoot of
what Verkhoshansky did, was developed by Issurin about
starting about 1983 or 84. And these are some of the newer concepts and
approaches that try to obviate some of those problems with classical periodization.
These three approaches are pretty much the same thing. They are based on these ideas. First of all is the observation that the
development of specific physiological/ performance characteristics and high
levels cannot be sustained or maintained for long periods of time. So in other
words, you’ve got to go back and readapt from time to time. That the specific
physiological/performance characteristics can be developed by
emphasizing specific training variables, As we talked about before. The
observation that simultaneous development of multiple characteristics
is pretty much counterproductive. The use of concentrated loads, if you do
it right, can give you superior results. The use of planned overreaching, if you do
it right, can take advantage also of some
underlying mechanisms and gives you a superior performance and a superior
adaptation, if you do it right. And then also the idea of, and this is what we
were talking about in terms of long-term phase potentiation, the phase that you’re
in now potentiates the next phase, which potentiates the next phase because of
residual effects. And so we see down here and here’s a study by Harris that
showed that. If you start out with strength endurance and then work on
strength and then speed and strength that works better than if you just worked on
these by themselves in terms of producing a higher power output and
increases in speed. Now in developing these ideas there’s a couple of terms
that we need to explore here. First one is a concentrated load. Now whether most
of you realize it or not there are really only two ways that we adapt, in
terms of training programs, depending upon the training program. Ok, and here they are. One of them is the
way we adapt, and this is from of some work with sprinters from Verkhoshansky, and these are different
physiological variables over time and we see out to 18 weeks here, and here is a
typical linear program of training. Not periodized, but basically the idea that you’re
going to increase a little bit, and a little bit, and a little bit and we see that some of
these things increased and then some of them did not. In fact, velocity and
running did not. So that’s one way that we can adapt. If
you see these adaptations, these physiological variables, except for that one, they’re pretty much linear. Ok. But now
here is what happens with a concentrated load. In this particular study what Verkhoshansky
did is he took high-level sprinters, in the old Soviet Union, and he
emphasized strength endurance work. And if you look at the actual training
program it was higher reps in the weight room
and it lasted several weeks here and he de-emphasized some of the other training
variables. What do we do in the sprinting zone?
They didn’t stop sprinting, but he de-emphasize that. And notice what
happened to these variables here. They actually got worse, but then they
drop the volume load, in other words, the amount of work they were doing it in
the weight room, re-emphasized what was occurring in terms of sprinting,
and notice the way that we adapt to this. Ok, it’s almost an S on its side.
And if you look at the percent changes, there’s a greater percent changes here and
velocity did not fall off like it did there. And so, it did down here during the concentrated load. In fact, their ability
to sprint got worse, but when they drop the volume load and
came back there was a rebound effect. These physiological variables got better
and their ability to sprint -I think the battery’s dying- actually got
better. Ok. So the variation is largely qualitative here but they are different.
The way we adapt to that concentrated load is quite different than how we
adapt to the typical linear progression. Ok. So a concentrated load then is a
phase of training emphasizing one specific characteristic. We would call
that unidirectional. Doesn’t mean we aren’t doing some of those other things
but we de-emphasize that. We take the load, the amount of work for those other
aspects of training, down. So training for the other characteristics during the
concentrated load is de-emphasize. Thus we call this unidirectional. So we are
concentrating the load for strength or strength endurance or whatever the
characteristic is that you’re trying to develop. Now in this top one up here you
see a macrocycle and what we find is in that typical macrocycle, which may be
several months up here, could be a year, but several months, we see a simultaneous
increase in a number of fitness characteristics in training. And so, we see the general physical preparation increase as
a result of this but when those are decreased, when we come out to the climax,
general physical preparation decreases too. What Verkhoshansky did in his
concentrated load was this, he had this big concentrated load and he
found what he called a special physical preparation, it actually decreased. So in the
sprinters their ability to sprint fell off. But when he manipulated the volume and
this came back down, now we find that the special physical preparation increased.
So their ability to sprint was actually better. So at that point Verkhoshansky did
something really neat, very creative, and this is the conjugated successive system, he said, what if we put several these
concentrated loads together in a logical order. What would be the outcome? And what he
found was is that when he did that, the idea here is we put the in a logical
order. So this might be strength endurance and basic strength and then
strength power, and because of residual effects this one potentiates that one,
this one potentiates that concentrated load, and so that what Verkhoshansky
called the total physical preparation was greater. Ok. So here is our basic idea of the
concentrated load, this might be strength endurance. Ok, we start out with that, and then we
come to a series of lower volume concentrated loads, and finally, a taper
and the idea is, ok, your performance might fall off here, but
then we start lowering the volume and manipulating things correctly, we’re going to get a boost as Verkhoshansky
saw in performance. And if we had a taper that you would get an even
bigger increase in performance because of the fitness fatigue paradigm. And that
is now the fatigue is falling off and now we can express our fitness. So in terms of that concentrated load,
which is the same things as that summated microcycle, that takes advantage of the
unidirectional stimuli. That is the concentration on a particular fitness phase. And it
also takes into consideration volume alterations. And so, the final effect is
due to the interplay of the concentrated stimulus and the volume changes. Now let’s talk a little bit about the
idea of overreaching, which is somewhat similar. Here is the basic idea, and there are
some pretty good experiments dealing with this, but– here’s basically normal training. Now
what is normal? Well it depends upon what you’ve gotten accustomed to. For elite
athletes, obviously, the volume is going to be higher than beginners.But suddenly,
very suddenly, for a short period of time we markedly increase the intensity, but
most people use an increase in the volume. Ok. So we may double or triple the volume
of training for a short period of time. When you do that what you find is your
ability to perform a actually fall off. And if you measure some underlying
physiological variables like testosterone or the testosterone/cortisol
ratio, if this lasts long enough, it will fall off. But if you do this right, and now you come back to a more normal
training schedule, you get a rebound effect here. Ok, and if you add a taper to that,
because of the fitness fatigue paradigm, a bigger rebound. And so, the bottom line is this, this basically again takes advantage of
the idea of a concentrated stimulus but for a much shorter period of time and
volume manipulations. And so, maybe we can put these the work for us in a periodized program. So the cons.. the the concept of all
three of these systems: conjugated successive, phase potentiation, and block
periodization, are based on this interplay between the concentration of loading and
volume manipulations. So if we come back from this and this is adapted from -from Bill Sands and
Issurin, here we come back to these terms accumulation, transmutation, and
realization. And here’s what’s going on, we’re trying to raise fitness and some
technical abilities, but we’re not trying to do things so much simultaneously here. It’s more related to fitness. Then during
transmutation, which is basically specific preparation or special preparation, now the volume still high but we’re
trying to do more, in terms of the specific motor and technical abilities.
And then when you come to realization, it’s really integrative. We are really
doing things in a more technical manner and we’re going from less specific to
more specific. Ok. The primary difference here is
simultaneous vs. consecutive. If we go back, for example, if we use the terms of
Verkhoshansky and Issurin, accumulation, transmutation, and so on, that
fits into our basic phase that we came up with for development strength
endurance, then basic strength, strength power, and then a taper phase. And we’re
going from less specific to more specific. So the ideas are
basically the same here. Ok. So if we go back to the idea of
conjugated successive, or block, or whatever you want to call it, here’s the basic idea, we accumulate work
capacity, we transmutate that, so to speak, now we take this we start increasing our
ability to produce force, our ability to produce rate of force, develop power, and so
on. And then we become very specific during the competition phase. And we
realize everything that’s been built up. That depends upon residual effects all
along the way, and we’ll talk more about the residual effects in a minute. And there is the basic
timeline. Those timelines are dependent upon when the next competition comes up.
So that we might put something together like this. And so here’s our really
important target competition but there are other competitions along the way
that we have to do well in. So into this we fit a block. So here’s a block, there’s
a block, there’s a block, there’s a block. In the first block notice that
accumulation or basic preparation, general preparation is larger here, but
we go through each phase along the way. Then there might be a short period of
active rest and we start over, a short period of active rest, start over and
all along the way. Notice that the accumulation phase gets shorter. If we do
things right here it doesn’t take as much to get that back,
and we’ll talk about that a little bit more later on if we have time. Ok. Now each of these ideas has the same
basic premise that is developed the athlete, raise their work capacity, get
them in shape to trained specifically for the sport, then you compete, then
go through active rest and then you repeat. Ok. And these blocks now they fit
into the competitive season. Ok. So if we really contrast classical
periodization with these more modern evolving methods, then here is a basic difference simultaneous vs. consecutive development.
Okay, so everything is developed here simultaneously, and we’ve seen the
problems with that. The development of physiology and motor capabilities over
here are a series of concentrated loads and manipulating the volume as well. Remember, if you’re trying to do
everything simultaneously then the concentration of any one training
characteristic that you’re trying to develop like strength, or power, and so on, has
to be low to medium. Over here we are really concentrating on that before we
go to the next concentrated load. The focus here is on training periods. Ok. Over here it’s on blocks. Ok. Back
here the -the background is an accumulative training effect. Over here
it depends on, not only accumulation, but delayed and residual training effects,
which we are going to talk about. So as we say modern concepts of periodization
depend upon a number of after effects, particularly, these residual after
effects. And so, this is from a paper by Issurin but this will give you some idea
of acute effects all the way down to residual effects. So you got acute
effects, the immediate effect after the training session, the cumulative effect, the delayed
training effect, and the idea of a delayed training effect is this, and there’s been quite a bit of work on
this, particular the vertical jump by Bear from Belgium, I think. I take athletes in the
weight room now, I get them stronger. I may not see the effect on their
vertical jump or running speed for weeks later because there is a delayed
training effect. If I make the motor unit stronger now it may take me time to learn how to
reuse those motor units in a different pattern to express the new found strength
and power and that’s a delayed training effect. But then we also have these
residual effects and that is retention of changes in the body state
or motor abilities. Even if you completely stopped training there are
some residual effect. Ok. So here are some of these residual
effects and they range from long-term down the short-term. Ok. I’m not going to take a lot of time
here to go over these. What I want to concentrate on are these down here. Ok. In this -this range, intermediate to
weeks and days. And one of the things that we know is if you drop the volume
of training, say in strength training, strength hangs in there a long time.
Strength is one of the last things to go. But strength endurance goes a little bit
faster, rate of force development goes pretty quick, and power output goes pretty quick. And so, if you completely do away with
training because these residual effects wear off pretty quickly, now you’ve got a problem. So that’s one of the reasons you don’t
want to completely get out of the weight room during a taper. All right. Now let’s actually put a
program together here. Here are some theoretical concepts. At
first I want to start off with two papers up there by Minetti and Zamparo,
and in these papers through both literature searches, mathematical
modeling, and actually some experimentation, they put together a theoretical model
for developing muscle and power. Ok. And then we’re going to talk a little
bit about how -what these people did fits exactly what we’ve been talking about.
Here’s the basic idea by Minetti and Zamparo and what they suggest is that
the first thing you want to do if you want to become more powerful or increase
rate of force development is you better get the muscle bigger and change the
muscle architecture. Ok. So they’re suggesting that the
first thing we do is hypertrophy the muscle, and there are some programs that do that
better than others. Then we begin to work on central and
local factors, recruitment of different fiber types, depending on what you’re
doing, co-contraction, and so on. So the idea is we increase maximum strength.Then later
on we do things that are more power oriented and more task specific. So if you think about this they’re
saying hypertrophy, basic strength and then power training. And they present some
really good physiological arguments as to why this
is a good idea. If you think about that that fits right into the idea of block
periodization. During the first part we’re saying to raise strength endurance and
if you look at the the paradigm by what you do that it’s also a reasonable paradigm, it’s
higher reps, higher volumes, that’s a reasonable paradigm to raise a
cross-sectional area and hypertrophy. So that part of the paradigm fits exactly Minetti’s and Zamparo’s paradigm. And then we’re
saying that after that you work on basic strength, increase ability to produce
force, local and central adaptations, and then after that, you work more
specifically. And if you think about what we’ve been saying for years that fits
exactly the paradigm that Minetti and Zamparo came up with from a physiological
standpoint of how the muscle and the nervous system works. Ok. Again we come back to our levels of
variation here, and we’re going to go through these fairly rapidly. In an
athlete’s life time, ok, one of the things that most people do
it when you start off with an athlete, you try to get them to use reasonable
technique. You spend, hopefully, a lot of time teaching them a good technique. Ok. Here is something to remember,
and I’ll be happy to defend this, the technique that they developed may
stick with them. Ok. One of the real important things if
they develop bad technique that maybe, they may be stuck with that the rest of
their lives. Once you have been doing that for let’s
say several years is -it is extremely hard to change. So
good technique right up front. And so, if we think about a sport, in terms of
tactics, then the tactical aspects may be initially not so important. Then in the
middle part more important and towards as they become an advanced or elite
athlete less important. Motor control becomes less important. Hopefully, they’ve learned
things correctly back here. Strength, and when I use the term strength, I’m not just saying maximum force
abilities, capabilities, strength has a lot of things that go with it, like rate
of force development, power output, velocity, and so on, so there’s a lot of
things that go along with this. And so, that needs to be emphasized as we go
from the time they start until when they end. Ok. Now here is another important idea, in
learning technique you may be limited by your strengths
capabilities. We see it all the time in track and field. You will see it
very quickly in a sport like gymnastics. If you can’t hold a cross, I don’t care
how good your technique is, you won’t hold a cross. If you aren’t strong enough to do
it. And so, most of time, problems such as those can be traced back to being weak. One of things that we should, in fact
Neil Pots at Edinburgh University and -and recently has done an
experiment showing pretty clearly that in learning techniques even of
weightlifting movements like snatch and clean, stronger athletes pick
it up faster. And so, being stronger, right off the bat, may help you develop
adequate or at least good technique. Now we come to very long-term. Again this
might be the four year cycles. Do you have a plan to take the athlete from
their freshman year to their senior year? Because they should be different people by the time they get here. So what they
do in their senior year should be different than what they did here. In
terms of long-term, ok, can you put together a training
process that includes the concept of periodization such as you can take them
to a reasonable level of performance over, let’s say, an annual plan? Ok. And so, can
you meet what should occur at the first
competition? In the second competition? And maybe the more important competition
out here? So can you put this together so that,
yeah, they perform well back here and they’re able to qualify for that. How have you put this together? You know,
so there are different training blocks in here. Can you put them together in a logical
order and can you manipulate the volume and intensity so that it works? Here’s the intermediate phase. These are
blocks themselves, mesocycles. This is the one that we came up with years ago. This is the first one we started
experimenting with this and so you see three in essentially
concentrated loads here. In this particular paradigm, we were interested
in creating maximum strength out here. So there is a strength endurance phase.
There is a more normal training phase in which this was sets of five, tens -fives
and here’s threes and twos. Ok. And so, one of things that I want you
to notice there is a drop in volume here from the first concentrated load which
was strength endurance down to the final one. There was an
increase in intensity, obviously, but notice there, here is a lighter week, a heavier week,
and a heavier week, and then unload week. As we discussed before. So it goes
basically up, up, down, up, up, up, down. Ok. And within this, as we’ll see, not only
are we varying load from week to week, but we vary day to day as well. So in advanced athletes this might be
emphasis on general preparation and strength endurance and basic strength
development. Notice here that the volume is going to
decrease and in this particular paradigm again the emphasis on developing
basic strength, we don’t do away with power but the
emphasis, the concentrated loads, are either strength endurance or basic strength. Ok. Now in another paradigm, now we come back to using the
concentrated loads but now we’ve also introduced here overreaching. So here’s our first
concentrated load, in this case, strength endurance. Then we come back to more
normal training. And now, in this first week right here notice we boost the
volume load and then we unload. And the idea here is from this concentrated load
we get a boost and then the overreaching it may decrease performance –and
unfortunately this is not working– but we now we get a boost and we have measured
performance and the TC ratios and what you see up there does occur. Ok. And then other
conditioning has to be around that. If the emphasis here is developing strength
during this period of time. So as the volume here is up the other conditioning
factors are decreased in volume, emphasis, de-emphasis. Ok. Here is another one where we’re doing a little bit more in terms of
power. So here’s the initial phase, and remember their residual effects that
carry over from the strength endurance, here’s some basic strength, but notice, in
this particular paradigm, yeah, we’re reducing the volume, but also there’s a
more of an emphasis on power output. So this one might follow the one that you
saw before this. All right. And then the taper and active rest as we saw before. We also
have to consider week-to-week variation and summated microcycles. A summated
microcycle is essentially another term for a concentrated load. So here are a
series of concentrated loads that deal with development of basic strength and
each one of them are four weeks in length. So we see up, up, down and this is a typical paradigm
for trying to emphasize gains in basic strength. And what we find is
fatigue is accumulated and then unloaded, accumulated and unloaded. Performance
tends to go in this pattern and we have some good data and they are showing that. Ok. Again, if you’re emphasizing basic
strength you have to manipulate the other conditioning variables around that.
This happened to be with throwers. And so, if they’re spending a lot of time in the
weight room there’s a lot of accumulated fatigue there. One of the things that we know, if you
have a lot of fatigue it’s going to interfere with some of the things. So you
have to decrease the volume of these other items. Ok. Here’s a different paradigm, this one might be one which we emphasize
power along the way. So let me give you a little bit more explanation. So here’s four concentrated loads and
each one starts with an overreaching phase. The overreaching phase might be
five sets of five dedicated to strength work, and then as we unload, as we come
down, we move more towards power. So strength work, back towards power,
strength work, back towards power, and so on down the line. And the idea here is that we
accumulate some, whoops, we accumulate some fatigue initially in the overreaching
phase and we unload that fatigue and we get a boost out of performance each time. Again you have to manipulate
the other conditioning factors around what you’re doing in the weight room. All right. What about day-to-day variation? Well, you see here some research papers
reviews the literature, primarily the first two are, and if you get a chance to
read that paper right there by Carl Foster, it’s a really important paper, because
Carl Foster did work with really high athletes use endurance athletes, team
handball, basketball, and so on, and one of the things that he found was this, here
is the typical in black. The typical loading pattern that you see
most coaches use. There is some variation there but not much. Loading from day-to-day is kept high and
what Foster pointed out if you do that you never really give them a chance to
recover and adapt if you don’t unload somewhere. So here we have day-to-day activity, yeah,
some variation but not much. That is a typical loading sceen. If you go to your
university, high school, that is what you typically see from day to day to day. What was clearly shown in these papers,
particularly by Foster, is if you use that loading pattern the adaptation to
training is muted. Ok. It’s decreased as a result. But if you
use the loading pattern where you have heavy loading, unload. So big stimulus,
unload, big stimulus, unload. The adaptation to that is much better
because now you give the athlete a time -time to adapt to the big heavy load here.
So this might be a day or two of really heavy loading and then unload. Give them
a chance to recover and adapt to the training load. So here is a basic idea, if we went through
a microcycle, here is a week, this might be something like weight
lifting. Weight lifting is pretty simple. You go in, you lift weights, primarily. And
so, here is a heavy day, a light day, a rest day, and so there is a big load, recover and adapt, big load, recover and adapt. Pretty simple when
you only have one factor to deal with, but let’s say you’re in a multi-event
like a decathlon or this could be something like american football or rugby, so here you have some weight training to
deal with. You have some running and agility to deal with. You might have
technical or tactical training to deal with. And so, let’s say
that our emphasis on gaining strength. Well, if you’re doing all those on the same day, remember, emphasize, de-emphasize, so we
are emphasizing this particular case what goes on the weight room. So heavy
loading and now we follow it up with a light day and some rest. So heavy
loading and now we have a big stimulus, recovering, adaptation, big stimulus,
recovering, adaptation. Ok, that’s if your emphasis on gaining strength. What if we turn that around now and your
emphasis now might be on tactical training or technique training? Now
notice that we have turned that around and now the heavy loading is down here.
So we still have a big stimulus, that recover, and adapt, and so on down the
line. All right. Here is an actual example. This is from actual data, ok, with throwers. And this is the
volume load in kilograms over here and this happens to be squats, and you
can see on Monday here’s a big volume load. The next day
they didn’t do much work. Ok. They’re out doing some throwing and
some midsection work. Here’s the next couple days they -they did, um, here’s Wednesday and Thursday, so that
day is pulling exercises, here squats again. Notice were beginning to take the
volume down but there’s a big stimulus there on
Wednesday and Thursday, then we take the volume down, recover and adaptation. Big
increase in volume on Saturday, take the volume down to rest, complete rest on
Sunday. So, Monday a large stimulus. Tuesday recovering and adapt. Wednesday and Thursday, a
large stimulus, recovering and adapt. Saturday, big stimulus, recovering and adapt. It fits the paradigm that Carl Foster
noted, in terms of relative intensity. Ok. Now in this particular example, let’s
say they’re doing three sets of five all the way through, ok, notice that we are changing the load, even
though it’s three sets of five, repetitions is not a -not a very good way
of estimating the loading or the amount of work. Volume load is better. Ok. So here’s
the volume low, which is reps times the weight. And so, if we keep the repetition
scheme the same all the way through simply by changing the load, and there’s
the relative intensity up here, simply by changing the load, we’re going to change the volume. So we
have heavy and light days built in when we do that. So here’s the actual volume and load. And
so, we changed the volume load along the way. Ok, and it’s extremely important that you
have heavy and light days along the way. Ok. Now here is a common mistake. First of all let me say this, one reason
for manipulating the load is if you go through a normal week of training you’re not as strong at the end of that
week because of the cumulative fatigue as you are at the beginning. So if you’re trying to use the same load
for squats on Friday that you did on Monday, you’ve just made a mistake, ok, because
the intensity, relative intensity, that you’re using on Friday is going to
be higher than that all Monday because of the accumulated fatigue, and there’s data
to show that. Ok. In terms of power output there is data
to show that if you use a variety of velocities and power out put, heavy and
light days, the effect is going to be greater. So
there are good reasons for using those heavy and light days. That
again are like three-day talks. But here is a big reason, the recovery from higher loads
takes longer. And here are some good reviews of the literature and studies
showing that. There is no doubt of that. If you jack the volume up it takes you
longer to recover. And so, and this again, is from actual data, here’s a day, an
athlete comes in and you see they’re doing sets of five. The actual load is
heavier here than it is on the second –on another day. Ok. 185 vs. 145. But when we actually get a reasonable
estimate of the amount of work, the amount of work they do over here is
actually higher than it is over here. The problem with this is it’s probably
going to take them longer to recover from this light day than it is from this
day because this is the actual heavy day. That is a big problem. That’s one of the
problems with the idea of the daily undulating periodization. Is that now
you’ve got heavy days that are called light days. All right. And again, when we do that, if
you think about this during the week, if we’re mixing up higher reps with lower
reps you’re using a mixed-methods. When you do that the total volume is going to
be higher. That’s going to create fatigue
management problems. We also know that when you use mixed
methods it’s usually going to favor the endurance side. Ok, and there are some problems in
training to failure and we’re going to talk a little bit about.
There’s some of the references dealing with variation and the
need for recovery adaptation. But let’s talk a little bit about training to
failure, is this really a good idea? And I’ve had people say, oh well, we use RM
values. We’re not training to failure. Yes, you are. Or at least very close, because the idea is, ok, using eight to 12 RM zones, if i can
make 12 reps, ok, so I’ve got to fail to find out if I’m
going to make 12 reps, or at least come very close to it. Is this really a good idea? All right. There are several reviews of
literature and studies which show very clearly that that is not a good idea.
That the effects, particularly in terms of strength, rate of force development,
and power output are not going to be as great. Especially among athletes who are
busy training and other areas as well, not just the weight room. Now I’m not a big fan of meta-analyses
but i think this table begins to show you the basic effects here. Here are studies in which are the effect
size and of studies that did train to failure. Ok. Here’s the effect size, the
strength gains, in terms of those studies that did not train to failure. And
clearly, you can see here that in those studies where they did not train to failure
they had heavy and light days, and so on, the effect was greater. And we see that
consistently. Training to failure is not a good idea. Now we get back to the basic idea of
periodization training and we have for this particular talk, primarily,
focused on sports that have a true climax, and you see this on the left hand
side here. And so, we’ve got a general preparation and a special preparation
and there’s a block, and there’s a block and there’s a block, and there’s a block. One thing that I want to emphasize here,
if you’ve got a long drawn-out annual plan, then if I gain sports-specific
fitness there, and then I dropped the volume, I’m going to lose sports-specific
fitness. And if I go through an active rest phase I’m going to lose
sport-specific fitness. So each time I have to come back and
accumulate sports-specific fitness and work capacity. And so, you see here there
is accumulation, transmutation, and then realization. Ok. As we talked about before. Now this
was from a weightlifter that I coached that went to the Olympics back in the
1980’s, early 1980’s, but we were using this idea of blocked
periodization way back. So it’s not a new idea. But now we need to turn to team sports, which is quite different. The
idea in team sport is, and you can ask a coach that just lost their job, for example, you’re supposed to win every game. Ok. That’s the idea. That’s difficult to
do. It can be done. We’ll see if LSU does it, but there are some things that goes
into the process here that we need to discuss. Now we’re using example here of
American football, collegiate football. And so, here is the summertime, and so, we
have a block here, and so, general preparations, special preparation, and so on. Ok. I’m sorry over here -here’s it, this is it over here and there –here’s
the competition. So there’s a maintenance phase through the competition. And then
we come back around to winter workouts where we use another block. And then we
come to spring -spring training. Now over the years I’ve observed
spring training very carefully and as best as I can figure out, the purpose of
spring training is to figure out how many people you can get hurt here so they
can’t play out there. Nevertheless, if we do this right, we can
come up with blocks here that allow us to produce the desired effect. So during team sports, there’s what we
just talked about, so in the off-season, I would suggest
using phase potentiation or block periodization. And that’s what we see here.
Leading up to the season. During the football season, use the maintenance program. One important factor here, during this
block don’t bring them to a peak here or here. Don’t bring them to a peak. Remember a peak is
as high as you can go. Data suggest’s if you’re at a true peak, you can
only hold it for three weeks. You’re supposed to win all these games.
Ok. So don’t bring them to a peak. During the maintenance phase moderate to high
intensity. Drop the volume. Ok. The frequency of training should come
down some too, during the football season, as well. But moderate to high intensity,
and you can maintain through there. Don’t attempt to increase strength
during the football season unless you’re dealing with redshirts. If you do, bad
fatigue management, decrease performance, increase injuries. Ok. Now the training session itself. High
school, college, and so on, obviously you’ve got to accommodate class. Some of the
professional sports, they might be working somewhere else. So
you’ve got to accommodate their schedule. So you have to be creative. But basically,
a session should go something like this the athlete before they walk in the door
needs to prepare themselves mentally before they get in to the weight room, or out on the track,
or wherever. You’ve got to have a warm up. Ok. Notice it says no stretch up there.
If you stretch and then do something to bring yourself back up in terms of high
power outputs that’ll work. Most people now are going to
a more of a dynamic workout, but you need to do a reasonable workout. Any priority
system, now you’ve got circuit training, for example, circuit weight training, for
example, and you have a priority system. Circuit weight training is for sissies
and adult fitness. Priority training is where you go from the most important
exercises to the less important exercises. Ok. Now no more than three major
exercises per session. The idea here is to keep it short and intense. If you train for more than about 60 minutes, the intensity will fall off. Doesn’t have
anything to do with testosterone. It deals with the nervous system. And
there’re studies, good studies, showing that particular one by Hakkinen here. If you
can, you will get better results, and we don’t have a lot of data on this, but
here are three studies that suggest this, if you can, break the sessions up into
two a day, or even more. So that you can concentrate and keep the intensity of
training up. If you can keep the intensity of the training up you get
better adaptations. After the workout, obviously, you need to do a cool down and
that’s when you should do most of your stretching. And then maybe some recovery
methods. As I said, a newspaper has come out of Australia suggesting ice baths really
do work, if you time it right. Ok. Now in terms of beginner advanced
athlete learning a new skill you’ve got to be careful. If you introduce a new skill and you do
something that is similar to that skill within a six-hour window there is data
suggests that interferes with learning the new skill. So you need to give sufficient time
between learning a new skill and introducing something in the training
session that’s similar. Ok. And then in the second session you
might use conditioning. If you’re really introducing a new skill
and then warm down. In terms of learning that new skill and the second
session, with advanced athletes they have greater fatigue resistance. Ok. And you might consider conditioning
first as it might potentiate the effect of learning the skill and there’s a
little bit of data. Several hours ought to be between those
sessions though. All right. Here is some of the research, there’s more than this that deals with what we just talked about.
And I hope you’ll take some time to read some of this. Ok. But in summary, I would suggest to you
that periodization conceptually provides the framework, the underlying framework, for
the whole training process. It is nonlinear. There is no such thing as
linear periodization. It does not exist. By definition, it cannot exist. Now I’m
using the term traditional up here, in this case not as classical, but if
you think about it, we have had a tradition of block periodization since the 1970’s. It offers advantages over the other
training methods and here are some of the papers both in terms of studies. These
references are quite important because they –they are pretty up to date. In fact,
that one is just now coming out. So moderator you’re on. Ok, we got three minutes. Someone have a
quick question? Surely, uh no, don’t call me Shirley.
Someone, yup, I don’t know, anybody got a question out there?
Oh, there’s somebody. I can’t see through the lights back there. Yeah, I don’t know. If somebody got a mic. I
can’t -can’t quite, this is what happens when you get old.
You can’t hear anymore. [Question from audience member – inaudible] I don’t agree we completely, but, because
we’ve done some things recently to show that… Here’s the problem with loading, if you
look at a recent paper out of Jeff McBride’s lab, one of the things that he clearly shows is simply because the load is heavier doesn’t necessarily mean that
the force output is greater. And so, when I’m talking about intensity
you have to take into consideration what I’m talking about is the actual force
output or the power output, and so, yes. Generally, if you increase the load of the
intensity in terms of force is higher, not always. S. that’s one problem –that’s one
problem right there. In fact you can –you can actually
generate, if you have a really motivated athlete, you can actually generate higher
peak power outputs at about 85 to, between 85% and 90%. Then
you can closer to 100%. [Question from audience member – inaudible] You cannot do that with potentiometers
alone. The power output that you get will be erroneous. And Jeff McBride showed
that, there’s about three papers out now, if you’re only using potentiometers the
problem with the power output is your ending up with… Well, what happens is you get the wrong
curve and you end up with peak powers that are not occurring where they
actually do. And so, you’ve got a kind of an average power. [audience member – inaudible] Now, but you got real problems if you –if all you’re using is -are potentiometers. I’m not sure where the question was but… [audience member – inaudible] I think, I think, let’s talk outside, cause I think
there’s somebody coming in. We’ll talk outside, because I think we’re done.

13 Replies to “Periodization and Programming for Strength Power Sports, with Mike Stone and Meg Stone |”

  1. This guy has seriously to take some courses of presenting. I don't want to go into his knowledge that 100 % he has, but worst lecturer did not appear in front of my eyes as he did that. He may know everything, but if he doesn't know how to transmit that to the audience than he is doing nothing actually except wasting his time

  2. I Loved This!! Really helpful and reinforces what I learned from other sources. I just bought my text book from you guys in hopes to learn more. If I may leave a feedback, I wish I could see the slides more often as he shares this information vs. mostly filming him lecturing. Question for anyone, how do I get certified with CSCS? I'm currently with NASM.

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